RCEES OpenIR  > 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
滦河流域污染物时空变化规律及生态修复措施
Alternative TitleSTUDY ON THE SPACIAL-TEMPORAL VARIATION RULES OF POLLUTANTS AND REMEDIATION METHODS IN THE LUANHE RIVER BASIN
崔经国
Subtype博士后
Thesis Advisor李叙勇
2014-09-11
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword生态计量学 生态修复 Ppp模式 Ecological Stoichiometry Ecological Remediation Ppp
Other Abstract      滦河流域坐落于京津冀都市经济圈,流域地表水径流对首都北京和天津的饮用水供给保障起到十分重要的作用。然而近年来沿岸城镇农村污水和垃圾的处理的滞后,以及农业畜牧业的快速发展所带来的面源污染,对流域内河流水体造成持续危害,不仅威胁到下游一线城市的饮用水安全,也同时破坏了河流生态系统的健康性和完整性。因此,研究污染物的时空变化规律和提出相应的修复措施,对于下一步开展流域修复治理具有重要意义。
      研究通过对流域2006-2012年历史资料的汇总分析,结合本研究在2013年的现场调研结果,以生态计量学为研究手段,分析河流水体污染物的时空变化规律,建立水体和沉积物氮磷计量比的对应关系,结果显示:
      (1)滦河干流较各支流污染较重,但近年有所改善。瀑河水质最好,伊逊河水质较差。河流污染物中以NH4+-N为主,表明流域内生活污水排放和农业化肥的使用对水质胁迫较大。伊逊河的四合永监测点各项污染物含量均超过地表水V类标准,污染最严重,滦河上游郭家屯监测点水质达到II类水标准,受中游干流和各支流影响,中下游水质恶化,需重点治理防范以承德为中心的滦河中游区域。
      (2)各水质条件下污染物浓度均有明显差异,其中TN浓度随水质类别的递增(由I类水逐步递增到V类水)呈明显上升趋势,因此TN能更准确的指示滦河流域的水质类型。
      (3)以COD为计量尺度,各个比值随着水质类型的递增变化,没有呈现明显的增减规律。以TP为计量尺度,变化规律明显,其中NOx--N:TP能更好的指示水质类型,I~V类水NOx--N:TP的比值均值分别为:233、216、111、102、52。
      (4)通过spearman相关性分析表明水体和沉积物的N:P呈显著相关关系,表明二者在一定程度上存在等比例变化关系。水体和沉积物的N:P高度相关,可以根据监测不同深度沉积物的计量比推测河流历史水质演变过程,为河流的水环境质量演变提供科学参考。
研究总结了河道生态系统的污染因素、河水黑臭成因以及评价方法。列举了当前常用的河道修复方法。其中,以增加溶解氧消除黑臭的修复方法有曝气法、生物修复法;以清除河湖内源污染的沉积物疏浚及覆盖技术;以植物修复见长的生态浮床法。结合滦河流域污染现状和成因,设计了以点面源污染控制、城区河段沉积物疏浚工程、生态边岸及沿岸缓冲区修复、植物修复与景观建设为主要内容的修复措施。
      修复措施结合投融资,以当前财政改革试点模式——PPP模式为突破点,通过中央财政加地方配套做为引导资金,本着技术和融资相结合的原则,对环保治理资金进行重组。建立一套类似美国“超级基金”的——滦河流域治理基金,设定投资回报机制,形成良性循环的局面,对改变环保重投入、轻产出的局面具有相当重要的意义。
      本研究虽不能彻底解决环境治理技术与资本的矛盾困境,但希望能投石问路,抛砖引玉,为今后流域尺度范围的环境综合治理提供理论依据和决策参考。;       The Luanhe River Basin is located in the Beijing Tianjin Hebei metropolitan economic circle. The watershed runoff of the basin plays a very important role in drinking water supply security in Beijing and Tianjin. In recent years, due to the low treatment rates of sewage water and solid waste in the villages and small towns along the river, and non-point pollution caused by the fast development of agriculture and animal husbandry, rive health in the basin was damaged. These pollutions not only threaten the downstream drinking water supply security, but also ruined the integral and health of river ecological system. It has important significance to study the special-temporal variation rules of pollutants and find out river remediation method.
      The historical data from 2006 to 2012 were collected and analyzed in this study. Data in 2013 were investigated in the field by the author. Ecological stoichiometry method was used as an important study method to analyze the special-temporal variation rules of pollutants, build the relationships between water column and sediments. The results showed as follows:
      (1) The degree of pollution in the mainstream was much heavier than the tributary. The best river water quality is Baohe River, while Yixunhe River was the worst in the basin rivers. The main pollutants is NH4+-N indicated that sewage water discharge and fertilizer usage were the main threaten to river water quality. Pollutants concentration in the monitoring station in the Yixunhe River were all exceeded the surface water class V standard. The best water quality monitoring location showed in Guojiatun monitoring station in the upstream of
Luanhe River. The midstream area is the start of water quality deterioration and should be focus on if treated.
      (2) Pollutant concentrations within all kinds of surface water class standards were statistical significant. TN was increased by the class standards rise from I to V. This pollutant can be the best indicator for water class standards in the Luanhe River Basin.
      (3) By using COD as a rule for stoichiometry, each stoichiometric result varied with water class variation irregularly. While TP was used, most pollutants stoichiometric results showed regularly. The best indicator is NOx--N:TP and the mean value of NOx--N:TP of water class standards from I to V were 233, 216, 111, 102, 52, respectively.
      (4) The results of spearman correlation analysis showed N:P between water column and sediment were correlated significantly. This conclusion can be used for deducing the historical changes of river water quality by analyzing the river sediments.
      The pollution factors, reasons and evaluation methods in the river ecosystems were summarized in this study. The common methods for river remediation were listed. Aeration method, biological remediation were used for increasing the DO in water. Sediment dredging was used for removing the endogenous pollution of rivers and lakes. Ecological floating bed method belongs to phytoremediation in nature. Based on the cause of pollution, 5 remediation methods were offered: point and non-point pollution control, sediment dredging in urban river, bank and the coastal buffer zone of ecological restoration, phytoremediation and landscape construction.
      PPP(Public Private Partnerships) was used for business model. The central government and local financing as guide funds. This model likes Super fund in the USA, it rebuilt the current funds for environmental protection. The main purposes of PPP model have important meaning for changing the negative impression of environmental protection: large investment with little output. It is hoped that the results of this study can offer decision-making for the government in the Basin pollution treatment.
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/15706
Collection城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
崔经国. 滦河流域污染物时空变化规律及生态修复措施[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
滦河流域污染物时空变化规律及生态修复措施(5854KB) 开放获取--Application Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[崔经国]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[崔经国]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[崔经国]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.