RCEES OpenIR  > 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
城市建筑的物能代谢及生态效应研究
Alternative TitleThe Study of Materials and Energy Metabolism and the Ecological Effect of Urban Building
张海涛
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor王如松 ; 胡聃
2011-11-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword城市建筑 Urban Building 建筑垃圾 Construction Waste 固体废物 Solid Waste 物质投入强度 Material Use Intensity 生态足迹城市建筑 Ecological Footprint 生态足迹
Abstract建筑是国民经济中资源消耗、能源消耗的主要部门之一。能源消耗、资源占用和全球气候变化是当前研究的热点问题,快速城市化条件下城市规模不断扩大,城市建筑面积的迅速增加,加上中国当前城市建设与规划中的大拆大建、盲目追求政绩等现象导致了城市建筑行业大量的资源与能源浪费、污染排放,城市建筑的生态影响日益凸显。本文以北京市、淮北市为案例,研究城市建筑的物能代谢及生态效应;分析基于固废循环利用生产新型建筑材料对城市建筑生态效应的影响,从生命周期角度提出了建筑生态效应的调控对策与建议。本研究旨在揭示城市建筑生命周期过程所涉及的物能代谢及其隐含的生态影响,分析城市建筑生态系统中固废循环利用的利弊,为城市建筑及建材行业的可持续发展提供相关的数据参考和科学依据。辨识了建筑生命周期过程的物能代谢及其生态效应。分析了城市建筑生命周期前端的资源开采与自然生态破坏的关系,表明与建筑相关的资源开采直接导致了土壤与植物多样性退化。对城市建筑物能代谢及生态效应相关参数的核算发现,公共建筑的单位面积物质投入总量达到9127.69kg/m2,是直接物质投入量(即建材消耗总量)的3.95倍。公共建筑的资源消耗强度远远高于住宅建筑。就城市建筑的单位面积生命周期能耗而言,公共建筑显著高于住宅建筑;钢混住宅高于砖混住宅;建筑的生命周期碳排放表现出相同规律。就城市建筑的生命周期能耗组成而言,建筑运行使用阶段所占比例最高,其次为建筑材料准备阶段,建材运输和建筑施工阶段能耗所占比例最低;建筑生命周期的碳排放组成表现出相同特征。建筑运行使用阶段和建筑材料准备阶段的能耗和碳排放是建筑生命周期节能减排需要重点关注的环节。公共建筑单位面积的生态足迹远远大于住宅建筑,每100m2的砖混住宅、钢混住宅、公共建筑的生命周期生态足迹分别为41.01 hm2、44.85 hm2和114.24 hm2。不同类型城市建筑生命周期生态足迹的组成中,建筑运行使用阶段所占比例最高,其次是建筑材料准备阶段,建材运输阶段和建筑施工阶段所占比例最低。
对基于固废循环利用生产的新型墙体材料的物能代谢参数的分析发现,北京市案例中,新型墙体材料建筑垃圾再生砖、混凝土砌块单位产品的总物质投入显著低于传统粘土砖,新型墙体材料在资源使用效率方面优于传统粘土砖;能显著提高建筑对资源的使用效率。新型墙体材料单位产品的生产能耗显著高于传统的粘土砖,其使用显著增加了建筑单位面积的能耗。就单位产品的碳排放而言,建筑垃圾再生砖>粘土砖混>凝土砌块;与使用粘土砖相比,混凝土砌块的使用降低了建筑单位面积的碳排放,建筑垃圾再生砖增加了建筑单位面积的碳排放。就单位产品的生态足迹来说,建筑垃圾再生砖的生态足迹显著高于传统的粘土砖;建筑垃圾再生砖的使用显著增加了单位建筑面积的生态足迹。淮北市案例中,新型墙体材料煤矸石砖、粉煤灰砌块的单位产品生产能耗显著低于传统墙体材料,煤矸石砖、粉煤灰砖在住宅建筑中的使用能显著降低建筑的单位面积能耗。就单位产品的碳排放而言,煤矸石砖>粘土砖>粉煤灰砌块>粘土多孔砖;与传统墙体材料相比,煤矸石砖的使用显著增加了建筑单位面积的碳排放。煤矸石砖的推广使用过程中应关注其碳排放较高的负面影响。研究表明,仅依赖新型墙体材料的生产不足以消纳大量的城市建筑垃圾,应开发多种途径加以利用。在行业尺度上推广使用新型墙体材料应以生态效率优化和碳减排为目标,确定合理的发展策略。从生命周期的角度提出建筑生态效应的调控对策,建筑生态效应的调控应从资源开采阶段的生态修复、建筑材料生产阶段的节能降耗、建筑施工阶段的节能与施工垃圾减量化、建筑运行使用阶段的节能减排等方面实施。
Other AbstractThe building industry is one of the main sectors of energy consumption and carbon emissions in China. Resources conservation, energy conservation and climate change are hot issues currently. China is now experiencing a rapid urbanization and the total floor area of newly built area expanding. Large-scale urban redevelopment and blindly pursuiting of better performance of government leads to large amount of building construction and demolition with huge waste of resources and energy, excess emissions in urban construction industry. The ecological impact of urban building are now becoming increasingly concerned.Taking Beijing City and Huaibei City as examples, the materials and energy metabolism of urban buildings and their ecological effects was studied. Also the ecological impacts of new-type building materials made of recycling solid wastes was analyzed. Then suggestios and countermeasures were made for regulating the ecological effects of urban buildings. This study aimed to reveal the ecological impacts involved in the process of materials and energy metabolism in life cycle of urban buildings and the advantages and disadvantages of solid waste recycling in building materials industry. The results provide data reference and scientific basis for the sustainable development of urban buildings and building material industry.
The material and energy metabolism and its ecological effects in the life cycle of urban building were analyzed, The result showed that degradation of soil and plant diversity was directly caused by resource extraction for building material production. The study of parameters of material and energy metabolism showed that the public building's resources consumption intensity is much higher than that of residential buildings, the total material input per unit floor area of public buildings is 9127.69kg/m2, which was 3.95 times of the direct material input. As for energy consumption per unit floor area, the public buildings are significantly higher than theresidential buildings, steel-concrete residential buildings are higher than brick-concrete residential buildings. The situation of life cycle carbon emissions per unit floor area of urban building is the same as energy consumption. The analysis of composition of the life cycle energy consumption showed that the operation phase account for the most part, followed by the building material production phase, and the lowest proportion of energy consumption was the building materials transportation phase and the construction phase. The composition of the life cycle carbon emissions show the same characteristics. The operation phase and the building material production phase are key points for regulating energy consumption and carbon emissions in life cycle of urban buildings. As for the ecological footprint per unit area, the public buildings were much larger than the residential buildings. Ecological footprint per 100 m2 area of brick-concrete residential building, steel-concrete residential building, public building are respectively 41.01 hm2, 44.85 hm2, 114.24 hm2. The analysis of composition of the ecological footprint showed that the operation phase account for the most part, followed by the building material production phase, and the lowest proportion of energy consumption was the building materials transportation phase and the construction phase.
The parameters of material and energy metabolism of new-type bricks based on solid waste recycling was calculated. In the case study of Beijing City, the result showed that: 1) as for the total material input per unit bricks in production process, construction waste bricks and concrete bricks are much less than conventional clay bricks, new-type bricks are more efficient in resources consumption. Urban buildings using new-type bricks are more efficient in resources consumption than those using conventional clay bricks. 2) as for the energy consumption in production process, construction waste bricks and concrete bricks are significantly more than conventional clay bricks; using new-type bricks increased the energy consumption per unit floor area of urban buildings compared with using conventional clay bricks. 3)as for the carbon emissions per unit bricks in production process,construction waste bricks > conventional clay bricks> concrete brick. And the lower carbon emissions per unit traditional clay brick leading to lower carbon emissions per unit floor area of urban building compared with the concrete brick while construction waste brick leads to higher carbon emissions per unit floor area. 4)for the ecological footprint in production process of bricks, construction waste bricks > conventional clay bricks while concrete bricks are almost the same with conventional clay bricks. The higer ecological footprint of construction waste bricks leading to higer ecological footprint per unit floor area of urban building compared with conventional clay bricks. In the case of Huaibei City, as for the energy consumption per unit bricks in production process, the result showed that new-type bricks(minestone brick, fly-ash brick) was much lower than traditional clay bricks, and the using of minestone brick, fly-ash brick in Huaibei City leads to a lower energy consumption per unit floor area of urban buildings. As for the carbon emissions per unit bricks in production process, minestone brick > traditional clay brick > fly-ash brick > perforated clay brick; consequently, the using of minestone brick lead to higher carbon emissions per unit floor area compared with the using of traditional clay bricks. More attentions should be paid to the negative effect of intensive carbon emissions of minestone brick. Urban construction waste could not be eliminated only by new-type bricks production, more alternatives should be explored. Optimized ecological efficiency and carbon reduction should be the objectives of development of new-type bricks industry. At last suggestions and countermeasures were made to minimize the life-cycle ecological effects of urban buildings. The suggestions is as follows: the countermeasures should trace back to the resource extraction phase, and concentrating on the energy conservation in building material production phase、energy saving and reduction of construction waste in construction phase、energy saving and carbon reduction in operation phase.
Subject Area城市生态学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/2850
Collection城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张海涛. 城市建筑的物能代谢及生态效应研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2011.
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