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题名: 我国农业政策环境影响评估
作者: 程翠云
学位类别: 博士后
答辩日期: 2015-01
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 王如松
关键词: 农业 ; 环境影响 ; 污染 ; 农业生产与经营模式 ; 农业政策,agriculture ; environmental impact ; pollution ; patterns of agricultural production and management ; agricultural policy
其他题名: Environmental Impact of Chinese Agricultural Policy
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:     农业政策的实施直接影响农业生产活动。但是,我国农业政策片面追求农业经济效率,而往往忽略环境保护,有些甚至与环境保护相抵触,使农业生产呈现“负外部性”,造成严重的农业污染。虽然我国政府将农业污染控制提到了议事日程,重要流域和环境敏感区域的农业污染态势有所遏制,但整体控制效果并不明显。其中,缺乏相应的政策法规和管理制度是影响农业污染控制的重要原因之一。对此,有必要以国家农业政策战略环境评价为抓手,对环境的考虑纳入到政策的制定和修订中去,寻求农业污染的源头控制政策和严格的管理制度,优化农业的发展模式、经营方式,引导、鼓励和约束农业主体的环境行为,促进我国农业生产的又快又好发展。
    本研究构建了适合我国实际的,可以宏观、系统、整体、科学评估我国农业政策环境影响的概念模型。在该评估模型指导下,以资源利用效率和生态效率为工具科学地定量评估在已实施的农业政策体系作用下的农业活动环境影响,准确把握和判断我国农业污染的现状,识别我国农业污染控制的重点区域和重点领域,分析我国农业污染的主要驱动因子。在此基础上,以保障粮食安全为前提,以经济社会环境效益优化与可行为原则,结合农业典型示范区的调研,尝试构建不同农业区划的农业生产经营管理模式,提出了相关政策的优化建议。
    研究结果表明,在既有农业政策影响下,农业已经成为地表水各类有机和氮磷污染物的主要污染源,且空间分布极不平衡,大量的污染量集中在少部分农业发达的地区,总体呈现东部和南部较重、西部和北部较轻的态势。从趋势预测结果来看,随着农业的发展,各地区各类污染物的污染强度都将普遍上升,但东部地区污染强度的增加更为迅速。由于现阶段我国仍然面临着由工业和城市经济发展驱动的水环境污染问题,东部地区也是中国工业和生活污染较为严重的地区,因此我国的农业污染在空间上与中国工业和生活污染重合,我国将不得不同时治理农业、工业和生活污染,具有很大的环境管理压力。因此,需要根据我国各地农业生产状况和未来农业发展趋势进一步优化我国现行的农业政策,发挥农业政策对农业可持
续发展的促进作用。农业政策的进一步优化,要有利于激励农业主体的环境友好型生产方式;有利于发展适度规模经济和现代农业,引导资源合理配置,提高生态资料投入效率;有利于要统筹城乡环境保护,通过财政支出结构调整引导农业生产结构优化,协调好不同农业政策;有利于完善农业市场机制,加快推进农业科技创新,实现农业生产的可持续发展。
英文摘要:     The implementation of agricultural policy directly affects agricultural activities. However, agricultural policy in China one-sided pursues agricultural economic efficiency, ignoring or even against environmental protection. Therefore, agricultural production presents negative externality, resulting in serious agricultural pollution. The Chinese government arranges
agricultural pollution control into schedule, with agricultural pollution trends in essential basin and environmental sensitive area contained; but the integral control effect is not substantial. One of the important reasons is the absence of related policies, regulations and management institution. It is necessary to consider environment when formulating and revising policies, under the strategic environmental assessment of national agricultural policy. Therefore, we can set agricultural pollution source control policy and strict management institution, to optimize development and management mode; then guide, encourage and restrain environmental behavior of the agriculture entities. As a result, agriculture gets sound and rapid growth.
     This paper sets up a conceptual model, which fits China’s context and can evaluate environmental effects of domestic agricultural policy macroscopically, systematically, integrally and scientifically. By this model,the agricultural pollution status, essential region and area are recognized based on resource and ecological utilization efficiencies. Therefore, based on investigation, various agricultural management modes are suggested for different area under principle of food security and economical-socialenvironmental optimization, inducing to make policies to control pollution from agricultural activities
    Results show that under existing agricultural policy, agriculture is now the main source of organic and nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants in surface water. These pollutants distribution is unbalanced: much concentrate in few regions which have developed agriculture; overall serious in southern and eastern, mild in northern and western. In terms of trend prediction, all pollutants intensity in all regions will increase along with agriculture development, but which is faster in eastern. As water pollution is still an issue which caused by industries and economic development, agricultural, industrial and living pollution will overlap in terms of region, leading to great pressure.Therefore, further optimization of the current agricultural policies in China according to our country agricultural production situation and development trend of future agriculture can promote sustainable development in agriculture.And it will help motivate agricultural entities of eco-friendly production; conducive to the development of appropriate scale economy and modern agriculture, and guide the rational allocation of resources, improve the efficiency of ecological input; help to balance urban and rural environmental protection, through adjusting financial expenditure structure, guide the agricultural production structure optimization, coordinate different agricultural policy; benefit agricultural market mechanism improvement,accelerate the agricultural science and technology innovation, and realize the sustainable development of agricultural production.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34119
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
程翠云. 我国农业政策环境影响评估[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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