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题名: 全国生态系统最终产品与服务及其 生态经济价值评估
作者: 戴子云
学位类别: 博士后
答辩日期: 2015-08
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 欧阳志云
关键词: 陆地生态系统 ; 生态系统产品与服务 ; 指标体系 ; 评估方法,terrestrial ecosystems ; ecosystem goods and services ; index system ; evaluation methods
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:     生态系统作为生命支持系统,无时无刻不在为人类的生存和社会的发展提供着服务。生态系统服务是指通过生态系统及其中的物种提供的有助于维持和实现人类生活的所有条件和过程。它不仅为人类提供了食品、医药和其它生产生活原料,更重要的是维持了人类赖以生存的生命支持系统,维持了生命物质的生物地球化学循环与水文循环,维持生物物种与遗传多样性,净化环境,维持大气化学的平衡与稳定等。然而,由于人口的增长,技术的进步与经济高速发展,人类活动导致了全球性的生态系统退化,并对生态系统服务造成了重大影响,对生态系统服务功能的研究也逐渐成为人们关注的热点问题。随着生态经济学、环境和自然资源经济学的发展,生态学家和经济学家在生态系统服务功能及其价值评估方面做了大量研究工作。生态系统服务功能及其价值评估是实现生态系统科学经营管理和自然资源可持续利用的重要基础,目前已经成为生态学和生态经济学研究领域的前沿热点问题。
    我国于 20 世纪 70 年代逐步开展了对生态系统服务功能及其价值核算的研究工作,也取得了相应的研究成果,但还存在着一些问题,如对生态系统服务的分类还没有形成一个详细的标准体系,各研究者多从自己的理解出发造成了评估指标体系不统一;价值核算方法方面也存在着不同的现象,即便是同一项生态服务功能,也用了多种价值核算方法来进行计算;最终造成了价值核算的结果不具有可比性,因此很难在随后的研究应用中进行推广,发挥生态系统服务功能及其价值核算的最大效用。在涉及到对陆地生态系统的该项研究成果较多,这些研究从评估方法学理论进行入手,从评估指标体系和价值核算方法开展了广泛研究,这些成果有助于今后的陆地生态系统服务功能及其价值核算研究工作的顺利进行。
    本研究在系统分析了生态系统服务基础理论之上,结合陆地生态系统结构和过程,提出了针对陆地生态系统产品与服务功能的指标体系,并对各项指标提出了相应的评估方法。以全国生态系统为研究对象,进行了2010年全国生态系统产品与服务功能的评估验证,可为今后的陆地生态系统服务功能研究提供借鉴和参考,为我国的环境、经济、社会的可持续发展提供理论依据。主要研究结果包括以下3 个方面:
(1)通过对陆地生态系统生态过程和功能研究进展的分析,综合现有的对陆地生态系统产品与服务功能的研究成果,构建了适合我国陆地生态系统产品与服务功能的评估的方法体系。将陆地生态系统按照植被覆盖和环境因子条件划分为森林、灌丛、草地、湿地、农田和城镇等六种类型,针对每种类型的生态系统结构和特点,构建了包括产品供给功能、调节服务功能和文化服务功能等三大类15项生态服务功能的总体框架。
(2)以生态学理论为指导,运用系统论和经济学价值评估方法,对构建的各项生态服务功能进一步细化评估指标和评估方法。本研究针对这些指标提出了相应的评估方法。利用构建的陆地生态系统产品与服务功能评估指标体系,从物质量和价值量两个角度提出了相应的陆地生态系统产品与服务功能指标的计算公式,从而形成了一个完整的对陆地生态系统产品与服务功能评估的方法理论体系,为今后对陆地生态系统产品与服务功能评估及其价值评估提供了参考。
(3)根据构建的陆地生态系统产品与服务功能评估指标体系,对全国生态系统进行了物质量和价值量的评估。2010年全国生态系统产品与服务总值是564619.6亿元,其中,生态系统产品总价值为91530.9亿元,生态系统调节服务总价值为413888.7亿元,生态系统文化服务总价值为59200亿元。本次对全国生态系统产品与服务功能评估研究,目的是对构建的陆地生态系统产品与服务功能评估指标体系的实用性进行检验,评估中的生态参数多源于现有的研究结果,要进行准确客观的评估还需要通过广泛的实地监测获取,从而准确的反映全国生态系统的生态服务功能状况。
英文摘要:     Ecosystem services are the conditions and processing through which natural ecosystems, and the species that make them up, sustain and fulfill human life. They not only supply to human with the production of ecosystem goods, such as food , forage , timber , biomass fuels, natural fiber , and pharmaceuticals. Ecosystems also perform fundamental life support services, which include the purification of air and water, detoxification and decomposition of wastes, regulation of climate, regeneration of soil fertility, and production and maintenance of biodiversity, mitigation of floods, droughts, the erosive forces of wind and rain. As the human population has grown and the power of technology has expanded, the scope and nature of this modification has changed drastically. Many ecosystems and their services are dominated directly by humanity. Economic valuation of ecosystem services is the base of scientific managing ecosystem and sustainable using natural resources. Today, ecosystem services and how to assess their values have become the researching hot spots in the fields of ecology and eco-economics.
    Since 1970s the research on ecosystem services and service evaluation have been gradually carry out in China with great progress, but there are still some probemes and issues, such as the classification of ecosystem services have not formed, due to the inconsistance of current classifications. The methods of evaluation have been used differently. Even the same ecosystem service can be evaluated by using different methods, lead to a the results cannot be compared in each other. It would not be able to apply in future research using the assessment result to play the maximum effectiveness of ecosystem services. The studies on the terrestrial ecosystem services have been developed a lot. This research studied on the assessment methodology and theory first, that is, the evaluation index system and value accounting methods.
    To sum up, the disseration emphsized the establishment of assessment indexes and formula system, based on the analysis of ecosystem service, and combining the structures and processes of terrestrial ecosystems. The ecosystem services of China had been assessed. This work could provide reference for the terrestrial ecosystem services assessment research, and the theoretical basis for the sustainable society of China. The main research works are as following:
 (1) Through the study of terrestrial ecosystems and ecological processes function analysis, synthesis of existing research on the terrestrial ecosystem goods and services, and to build a suitable assessment of terrestrial ecosystem goods and services of the methodology. The vegetation cover in terrestrial ecosystems and environmental factors in accordance withconditions classified as forests, thickets, meadows, wetlands, farmland and towns of six types of ecosystem structure and characteristics of the system for each type of building, including product supply function, regulating services function and cultural services and other three categories 15 overall framework of ecosystem services.
(2) Using the ecology theory, systems theory and economic evaluation method for the ecological services built further refine the assessment indicators and assessment methods. In this study, these indicators of the corresponding evaluation methods. Use of terrestrial ecosystem goods and services evaluation index system construction, put forward the corresponding formulas goods and services index terrestrial ecosystems physical and value from two angles, thus forming a complete terrestrial ecosystem goods and Methodology System assessment services for the future of the terrestrial ecosystem goods and services and their valuation assessment provides a reference.
(3) According to the terrestrial ecosystem goods and services evaluation index system construction of national ecological systems were evaluated in physical and value. In 2010 the ecosystem services value of China is 56.46 trillion yuan, of which, the t value of ecosystem goods is 9.15 trillion yuan, the value of ecosystem regulating services is 41.39 trillion yuan, the value of ecosystem cultural services is 5.92 trillion yuan. The ecosystem of products and services, The purpose of this assessment is to build the practicality of terrestrial ecosystem goods and services evaluation index system for inspection, evaluation of ecological parameters and more from existing findings, to be accurate and objective assessment of need to get through extensive field monitoring, to accurately reflect the status of the national ecological services ecosystem.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34123
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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戴子云. 全国生态系统最终产品与服务及其 生态经济价值评估[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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