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题名: 梅江流域四环素类抗生素的空间分布特征与迁移转化规律
作者: 郭晓
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2015-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 陈求稳
关键词: 四环素类抗生素,降解产物,养猪场,沉积物,土壤,梅江流域, Tetracyclines, degradation products, piggeries, sediment, soil, catchment
其他题名: Spatial distribution, transportation and transformation of Tetracyclines antibiotics in Meijiang River catchment
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要:       为研究养殖业中四环素类(Tetracyclines, TCs)抗生素的使用对其周边环境及受纳河流生态环境的影响,选取养殖业发达的江西省梅江流域作为研究区域,进行了养猪场规模及用药情况调查。针对其中四个典型的养猪场,调查了养殖废水向环境中迁移的路径,并沿着不同的迁移路径进行排放口水样采集与沟渠沉积物、污水塘沉积物、农田土壤样品采集。同时,对梅江流域范围内的农田土壤以及小溪流、受纳河流的沉积物进行样品采集。利用固相萃取和超高效液相色谱-串联质谱联用提取、测定样品中 11种  TCs浓度。
    研究结果显示,养猪场排放口水样中 TCs浓度在g/L级,该处的沉积物中 TCs浓度差别很大。四环素(Tetracycline,  TC)及其降解产物的浓度表现为:污水渠沉积物>污水塘沉积物>混合渠沉积物>水田土壤>旱田土壤。土霉素(Oxytetracycline, OTC)及其降解产物的浓度表现为:污水塘沉积物>污水渠沉积物>水田土壤>混合渠沉积物>旱田土壤。OTC类相比于TC类更容易在相对稳定的水体-沉积物系统(如污水塘、水田土壤)中沉积。TCs沿各自迁移路径总体表现出随距离的增加浓度衰减的特征,且开始时衰减迅速,一段距离后衰减趋于缓慢。各养猪场周围的农田土壤、混合渠沉积物均受到TCs污染,多个样品浓度高于土壤中抗生素生态毒害效应的触发值 100g/kg。
    流域土壤中 TCs浓度在g/kg级,大部分 TCs及ΣTCs浓度表现为“红壤”中平均浓度最大,“紫色土”次之,“水稻土”中最小的顺序。每个子流域土壤中 TCs浓度与该子流域的养殖密度并无显著的相关关系。与养猪场周边土壤比较发现,二者平均浓度的高低没有表现出规律性。因此,养猪场排出的 TCs大部分都没有进入流域水稻田土壤中。
    梅江流域的小溪流和干流沉积物中的 TCs浓度同样在g/kg级,其种类、浓度高低与养猪场水样中一致。各子流域沉积物中 TCs浓度与相应的养殖密度呈正相关关系。大多数 TCs在小溪流沉积物中的最大浓度高于干流,说明TCs是从养猪场进入小溪流,最终汇入干流中。两条支流(会同河、固厚河)的汇入都使得梅江干流沉积物中TC浓度增加,而梅江干流在没有支流汇入的区段从上至下浓度呈衰减态势。TC和  OTC在迁移过程中主要的降解产物分别为差向四环素( Epitetracycline, ETC)、差向土霉素Epioxytetracycline, EOTC),二者同为差向异构化降解产物。降解产物差向脱水四环素(  Epianhydrotetracycline,EATC)等浓度虽然低于其母体,但由于其环境毒性较大,因此存在的生态风险不容忽视。
    对比排放口处水样、沉积物样品、流域中土壤样品及小溪流样品可以推断,降雨径流对土壤冲刷带来的 TCs污染并不是小溪流中  TCs的主要来源,通过沟渠直接排放到小溪流的养殖废水可能是主要来源,因此对规模化养殖场养殖废水排放的管理是梅江流域抗生素控制的关键。

 
 
英文摘要:       This  study   selected  the   Meijiang  River   catchment  with   intensive  poultry farming to  investigate the impact and  environmental risk of  tetracyclines (TCs)  use on environment and river ecosystem.
    First, the  investigation of  piggery scale  and drug  usage was  conducted. Then,four  typical piggeries  were  selected to  reveal  the  transport paths  of  the  livestock wastewater  to  the  environment.  The  samples  of  wastewater  outlet,  sediments  in sewer  and   sewage   pond,  and   farmland  soil   were   collected  along   each  path.Meanwhile, soil  and sediment samples  of streams were collected  in Meijiang River catchment. Finally, the  eleven species of TCs  in all samples were  extracted by solid phase extraction  (SPE), and quantified by  ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS).
      The results showed that  TCs concentrations of water samples  in piggeries were in g/L level, while  concentrations in sediment varied  greatly in different piggeries.The  concentration  of   TC  and  its  degradation   products  had  a  downside:   sewer sediment >  sewage  pond sediment  > confluence  channel  sediment >  paddy soil  >upland  soil.  Compared  with  TC,  OTC and  its  degradation  products  were  apt  to deposit  in water-sediment  system,  such as  sewage  pond or  paddy  soil, which  are relatively stable environment. On  different transport paths, the concentration  of TCs fell  off with  distance.  The decay  started  rapidly and  slowed  down after  a  certain distance. The  research also indicated  that farmland soil  and sediment in  confluence channel   were    exposed   to    antibiotics   contamination    around   piggeries.    The concentrations  in  part of  the  samples  were  higher  than  100 g/kg,  which  is  the triggering threshold of eco-toxicological effect.
    Based on  the results,  concentration  of TCs  in the  soil samples  were in g/kg level. Average  concentration of most  TCs and ΣTCs  showed the downtrend  in  “red soil”, “purple soil”  and “paddy soils”.  There was no significant  correlation between TCs  concentration of  soil and  stocking  density in  the same  sub-basin. Comparing with  the soil  near  piggeries  from  the  sub-basin, the  average  concentrations  were irregular.  Therefore, most  of  TCs  emitted from  piggeries  did not  transport  to  the paddy soil in this catchment.
Similarly,  TCs concentrations  of sediments  in  main  stream and  tributaries  of  Meijiang River were  in g/kg level,  the species, trend  of concentration variation  of TCs  were in  accordance  with  water  samples  of piggeries.  However,  there  was  a positive correlation  between TCs concentrations  of sediments in  sub-basins and the corresponding stocking  density. The  maximum TCs concentration  in the  tributaries sediment  were higher  than  that in  main  stream, indicating  that  TCs emitted  from piggeries ran  into  the tributaries,  and  ultimately into  the main  stream. The  inflow from the two  tributaries (Huitong stream,  Guhou stream) led to  the increase of  TCs concentrations  in sediments  in Meijiang  River,  while the  concentration  descended from up to  down in the  segment of main  stream without tributary inflow.  The main degradation products of  TC and OTC  were ETC and  EOTC respectively, which are the   degradation   products    of   epimerization.   Although   the    concentrations   of degradation products such as EATC were lower than their parents, the ecological risk was not negligible due to their high toxicity.
    Contrasting the  samples  of water  and sediment  at outlets,  catchment  soil and stream sediment, it can be inferred  that TCs from soil erosion by rainfall was not the main source  to  tributaries, while  sewer  wastewater which  discharged directly  into streams should be the main cause. Therefore, wastewater  management on large-scale livestock  farming   is   the  key   aspect  to   antibiotics   control  in   Meijiang  River Catchment.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34325
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
郭晓. 梅江流域四环素类抗生素的空间分布特征与迁移转化规律[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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