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题名: 中国生态系统防风固沙功能时空变化研究
作者: 江凌
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2015-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 欧阳志云 ; 肖燚
关键词: 风力侵蚀,RWEQ,地理信息系统,定量评价,时空变化,驱动分析,Winderosion, RWEQ, GIS,quantitative assessment, temporal and spatial variation, driving force analysis
其他题名: Temporal and Saptial Patterns of Sand Retention Service in China
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:     土壤风蚀是全球性的环境问题之一,在干旱、半干旱区严重威胁着人类生存与社会的可持续发展。防风固沙功能是干旱、半干旱区生态系统服务中的重要服务功能之一。对中国生态系统防风固沙功能进行定量评估,并分析防风固沙功能的空间分布格局和十年变化特点,探讨引起固沙功能变化的原因和驱动因素,以期为人类的生产和建设活动提供管理依据,并为防风固沙生态功能屏障区的建设提供指导,为经济和社会的可持续发展提供生态保障。
    本研究以RWEQ模型为研究工具,以地理信息系统(GIS)为工作平台,在气候、遥感、地形、植被等等数据的支持下,定量分析和评价了2000-2010年的中国生态系统防风固沙功能,分析其时空变化,揭示了防风固沙功能的影响和驱动因素,得到如下主要结论:
(1)中国风力侵蚀现状依旧严峻,2010年中国风蚀发生面积为230.8万km2,强度以上风蚀占国土面积11.82%,草地和农田是对风蚀最为敏感的生态系统类型。内蒙古高原、河西走廊、黄土高原、准噶尔盆地、塔里木盆地是我国强度以上风蚀的主要分布区。
(2)2010年全国生态系统固沙总量为110.68亿吨,单位面积固沙量为2344.22 km-2 a-1,固沙率为36.5%。草地生态系统防风固沙量为62.24亿吨,约占全国生态系统固沙总量的56.2%,是我国生态系统防风固沙功能的主体;农田生态系统防风固沙量为13.24亿吨,占全国防风固沙总量的11.9%,是防范土壤风蚀的重点领域。
(3)2000年-2010年,中国生态系统固沙量增加了15.77%,植被固沙率提高了10.3%,重要和极重要固沙功能区面积增加了19.32%。十年间,我国防风固沙功能的变化以改善为主,其中改善区域面积为大多集中分布在鄂尔多斯高原、科尔沁沙地、内蒙古高原和准噶尔盆地、环塔里木盆地这四个区域;防风固沙功能的弱化,主要发生在河西走廊、浑善达克沙地西部与北部区域、准噶尔盆地古尔班通古特沙漠区域。
(4)固沙功能变化的驱动分析表明,固沙功能的变化是气候、土地利用变化、社会经济活动等因子共同作用的结果。其中降雨和温度对固沙功能的改善和提高具有显著的影响,而城市扩张和道路建设的过程和结果均对固沙功能有显著的负面影响,农业的农田开垦和畜牧业等活动强度过强不利于防风固沙功能的维持和提高,而人口向城市的转移以及第一产业比重的下降对降低生态压力,促进自然植被的生态恢复大有裨益,各类生态工程的建设对生态系统防风固沙功能的提高起到了积极和预期的效果,但是矿业开采对区域生态质量的破坏和生态功能的削弱作用不容忽视。
(5)研究分析了我国典型风力侵蚀区-内蒙古自治区的防风固沙功能十年变化及其变化的驱动因素,结果表明:内蒙古自治区在与中国固沙功能影响因素基本相同的情况下,在空间上表现了一定的异质性,其西部地区由于气候干旱、植被稀疏,固沙功能的变化对降雨的增加更为敏感,而内蒙古东部地区的固沙功能变化则更易受到风速和温度的影响。十年来内蒙古的固沙功能的提高是在有利的自然因素变化条件下,人类通过封牧轮牧、退耕还林还草、生态工程建设等管理和工程措施对生态系统质量的恢复和功能的增强的结果.
英文摘要:     Wind erosion is one of global environmental problems, threat the human survival and society sustainable development in arid and semiarid area. Sand fixing service is one of the importance ecosystem service in arid and semiarid. Quantitative assessment the windbreak and sand fixation of ecosystem of China, and analysis the change characteristics of windbreak and sand fixation distribution pattern in spatial between 2000-2010 years, to investigate the causes of sand fixing changes and driving factors, in order to provide the basis for the production and management of construction activities of human beings, to provide guidance for the ecological barrier construction, and then to provide ecological guarantee for the sustainable development of economy and society.
    In this study, use the RWEQ model as a research tool, and the Geographic Information System(GIS) as the working platform, at the support by the data of climate, topography, vegetation, remote sensing, quantitative assessment the amount of sand fixing and importance of sand fixation function, and analysis the change in the temporal and spatial, to reveal the driving factors about the effect of windbreak and sand fixing, and get below result: (1) The status of China wind erosion was still serious, in 2010 Chinese wind erosion area was 230.8×104 km2, above the intensity of wind erosion accounted for 11.82% of land area, grassland and farmland was the most sensitive ecosystem. Inner Mongolia Plateau, Hexi Corridor, the Loess Plateau, quasi Junggar basin, Tarim basin is the main distribution area of intensity wind erosion.
(2) The mount of sand fixation in China was 110.68×108 tons, and unit sand fixing was 2344.22 km-2 a-1, sand fixation rate was 36.5%. The amount of sand fixation by grassland was 62.24×108 tons, almost accounted for 56.2% of the total amount of sand fixation in China, is the main ecosystem type of sand fixation; the amount of sand fixation by farmland was 13.24×108 tons, accounted for 11.9% of the total amount of sand fixation in China, is important area to prevent wind erosion.
(3) The a amount quality of the sand fixing material in ten years increased by 15.77%, the rate of sand fixation by vegetation was increased by 10.3%, the important and more important area of sand fixing function was increased by 19.32%. The main change of windbreak and sand fixing function in our country was improve, and improvement area is mostly distributed in the Ordos Plateau, Horqin sandy land,Inner Mongolia Plateau and quasi Junggar basin, Tarim basin; the weaken of sand fixation function was mainly happened in Hexi Corridor, the west and north of Hunshandake Sandy Lnad, Junggar basin in the Gurbantunggut Desert Region.
(4) The driving force analysis of sand fixation function change show that: the change of sand fixation function is the end product of climate, land use change and social economic. The trends of rain and temperature change was help to improve the sand fixation function; but the process and result about urbanization and road built was harm to sand fixation function, fast farmland converted and highly pasture was disadvantage to keep and improve sand fixation; rural people concentrate to city and decreasing of the agricultural economic rate would help to reduce the ecological pressure and to promote the restoration of natural vegetation ecology; different ecological project arrived it's expected effect to improve the ecosystem's sand fixation function. But the damage of regional ecological and the weakening of ecological funciton by mining exploitation can not be ignored.
(5) Study analyzes the typical wind erosion zone-the sand-fixing function change and it's drivers in decade of Inner Mongolia, the result show: Inner Mongolia almost have the same effect factors to sand fixation function, but show some heterogeneity in space, the west of Inner Mongolia due to arid climate, sparse vegetation, the change of sand fixation was more sensitive to rainfall increase, but the east of Inner Mongolia was more susceptible to wind speed and temperature. The sand fixation's enhance in ten years was based the improve of natural environment, and at same time, through forbid pasture in some region of grassland, return farmland to forest and grassland, ecological project construction, to recovery the ecosystem's quality and improve function.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34333
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
江凌. 中国生态系统防风固沙功能时空变化研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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