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题名: 污水处理厂污泥特征对其能源化效率的影响研究
作者: 李美艳
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2014-12
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 刘俊新
关键词: 污水处理厂,污泥特征,厌氧消化,焚烧,能量平衡,waste water treatment plant, sludge characteristics, anaerobic digestion, incineration, energy balance
其他题名: Study on the impact of wastewater treatment plant sludge characteritics on its energy efficiency
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要:     在城市污水处理过程中有大量的污泥产生,这些污泥的处理处置已成为影响污水处理厂正常运营的重要因素之一。另一方面,污泥中的有机质可用于产能,是近年来的研究热点。本研究以北京市城市污水处理厂污泥为对象,采用现场调查与实验室小试相结合的研究方法,对污泥特征及其能源化效率关系进行研究,识别影响污泥能源化效率的关键特征组分,为污泥能源化技术途径的选择与能源化效能的提高提供科学依据。 通过对北京市10家污水处理厂7种污水处理工艺所产生污泥的调查与分析,考察了不同类型污水处理工艺及运行条件对污泥特征的影响。结果表明,进水水质和水处理工艺对污泥特征的影响方面不同,进水水质主要影响污泥的有机物总量,而污水处理工艺影响污泥的有机物组成。所调查工艺产生的污泥中有机质含量由高到低的顺序为:倒置A2/O工艺>A2/O工艺≈氧化沟工艺>A2/O+MBR工艺>CASS工艺。
    对污水处理厂中一实际厌氧消化系统的5年运行数据的统计与分析结果表明,污泥的含固率和厌氧反应器的SRT均对厌氧消化效能有明显的影响。当进泥含固率小于5%时,厌氧消化产气率随含固率的增加而增加;当含固率达到5%以后,污泥的单位容积产气率几乎不变。因此,为保持较高的厌氧消化效能,中温厌氧消化池进泥的含固率宜控制在5%左右。同时研究表明,随着SRT的延长,污泥厌氧消化池单位容积产气率下降,但单位体积污泥的产气率增加,VS的去除率增高。不同种类污泥产甲烷潜力的研究结果表明,初沉池污泥的产甲烷潜能优于二沉池污泥,而将初沉池污泥与二沉池污泥以4:1的体积比例混合而得到的混合污泥的产甲烷量最高,同时其分解单位VS产气量也最大。 通过热重分析和氧弹热量仪测定,研究了污泥燃烧性能、热值与污泥组分的关系,结果表明:污泥的燃烧性能和热值与污泥的成分密切相关。污泥燃烧性能和热值受总有机物含量的影响,特别是有机组分中蛋白质的影响。多糖的燃烧主要集中在第二温度段(175-300 °C),且其燃烧速率远高于蛋白质和脂肪,因此多糖的含量对污泥微分热重曲线产生较大的影响。此外,与二沉池污泥相比,初沉池污泥和消化污泥的硫含量高,且热值低、燃烧性能差。
    以厌氧消化和焚烧产能的理论为基础,根据污泥能源化途径的输入能量、输出能量及污泥特征与能量产出的函数关系,初步构建了基于污泥特征的厌氧消化能量平衡模型和焚烧产能能量平衡模型,确定了厌氧消化系统和焚烧产能系统达到能量平衡时的污泥中VS的平衡含量。综合厌氧消化和焚烧产能的计算,初步得到如下结论:当污泥VS≤052TS,不适于污泥中温厌氧消化和焚烧产能;当污泥0.52TS0.62TS时,不论中温厌氧消化和焚烧产能,两种能源化途径都是有能量产出的。
英文摘要:     A lot of sludge was produced in wastewater treatment process and its treatment and disposal have become one of the important factors that affect the normal operation of wastewater treatment plant. On the other hand, the organic matter in sludge can be used to provide energy, which is increasingly interesting to researchers in recent years. In this study, practical investigation and bench-scale research method were combined to analyze the relationship between sludge characteristics and sludge utilization efficiency and identify the critical components that have a significant impact on the sludge utilizing efficiency based on the sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Beijing. The aim of this study is to provide the scientific basis for the selection of sludge utilizing way and the improvement of sludge utilizing efficiency.
    In this study, sludge from ten wastewater treatment plants in Beijing involving seven types of wastewater treatment processes, especialy the effect of various wastewater treatment operations and processes on the sludge characteristics were investigated and analyzed. The results indicated that the quality of influent and the treatment process have different impacts on sludge characteristics, the former mainly affecting the total amount of organics in the sludge and the latter dermining the specific composition of the organics. According to the study, the proportion of organics in the sewage sludge from different wastewater treatment processes displays as follows: Reversed A2/O > A2/O ≈ Oxidation Ditch > A2/O +MBR > CASS.
    By collecting and analyzing the operation data about the anaerobic digestion system from awastewater treatment plant for five years , it was found that both the solid content of the treated sewage sludge and the sludge retention time have a significant impact on the efficiency of the sludge anaerobic digestion. When sludge solid content is less than 5%, the anaerobic digestion gas production rate increases with solid content increasing. When the solid content is more than 5%, Sludge gas production rate is almost unchanged. Therefore, in order to maintain high efficiency of the mesophilic anaerobic digestion, the solid content should be controlled at about 5%. With the extension of the SRT, digester gas production rate per unit volume decline, however, the gas production rate per unit volume sludge and the VS removal rate increased. Different types of sludge produced methane potential tests shows primary settling tank sludge methanogenic potential is better than the secondary settling tank sludge. The maximum amount methane production and gas production per unit VS were found in mixed sludge with 4:1 volume ratio of the primary settling tank sludge and secondary settling tank sludge.
    Through thermogravimetric analysis and oxygen bomb heat meter test, the relations between sludge composition, combustion performance and heat value were studied. The results indicate that combustion performance and heat value were significantly correlated with sludge composition. The total organics, especially protein, play an important role on combustion performance and heat value. Carbohydrate weight loss mainly occurred during the second stage (175 °C - 300 °C) and its combustion rate is higher than protein and lipid, which lead to that it has a great effect on differential thermogravimetrie curve. Compared to secondary settling tank sludge, the primary settling tank sludge and digested sludge have much more sulfur content, lower heat value and inferior combustion performance.
    Taking the theory of anaerobic digestion and incineration as the foundation, according to the sludge energy input and output and the relationship of energy output and sludge characteristics, the energy balance model of anaerobic digestion and incineration was initially constructed. The content of VS was determined when the anaerobic digestion system and incineration system achieve energy balance. Integrated anaerobic digestion and incineration calculation, the preliminary conclusions were obtained as follows: when sludge VS content is less than 0.52TS, the sludge is not suitable for anaerobic digestion and incineration; When sludge VS content is more than 0.52TS but less than 0.62TS, the sludge can be used for anaerobic digestion; When sludge VS content is more than 0.62TS, both the two ways had energy output.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34340
Appears in Collections:水污染控制技术研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
李美艳. 污水处理厂污泥特征对其能源化效率的影响研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2014.
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