中国科学院生态环境研究中心机构知识库
Advanced  
RCEES OpenIR  > 环境化学与生态毒理学国家重点实验室  > 学位论文
题名: 钢铁生产过程中UP-POPs的排放水平和特征研究
作者: 李素梅
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2015-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 郑明辉
关键词: UP-POPs,铁矿石烧结,转炉炼钢,二恶英类,排放因子,UP-POPs, Iron ore sintering, Converter steelmaking, Dioxins, Emission factors
其他题名: Emission and Characterization of UP-POPs from Steelmaking Processes
学位专业: 环境科学
中文摘要:     多氯联苯(PCBs)、多氯萘(PCNs)、多溴代二苯对二恶英类和多溴代二苯并呋喃(PBDD/Fs)和多溴联苯醚(PBDEs)等持久性有机污染物(POPs)具有与多氯代二苯对二恶英类和多氯代二苯并呋喃(PCDD/Fs)相似的物理化学性质、环境行为和生物毒性,在环境中呈现持久性、生物富集和放大性,因而受到广泛关注。这几类POPs可以在热相关工业过程中无意生成与排放,因而也被称为非故意生成的持久性有机污染物(UP-POPs)。在钢铁生产的各工艺过程中,铁矿石烧结过程已经被确认为是PCDD/Fs、dl-PCBs和PCNs的重要排放源,但目前对于铁矿石烧结过程中产生的其它新型UP-POPs(如PBDD/Fs和PBDEs)的研究还不够全面和深入。此外,与铁矿石烧结相比,有关研究鲜有涉及转炉炼钢过程中UP-POPs的生成和排放,而且也甚少关注到钢厂厂区空气中UP-POPs的存在水平。因此,本研究以中国北方六家典型钢铁厂为研究对象,对其中的铁矿石烧结和转炉炼钢过程中UP-POPs的排放水平、排放特征和生成途径进行了系统研究,并对各个钢厂厂区空气中UP-POPs的浓度水平和特征进行分析,以此来评估钢铁厂厂区空气中的UP-POPs对于工作人员暴露风险,获得的主要研究结果如下:
1. 以6家钢铁企业为调查对象,对其中的铁矿石烧结过程中UP-POPs的排放水平和特征进行了较为系统的研究。依据检测的数据,分析了多种UP-POPs在铁矿石烧结烟道气中的相对重要性。几类中UP-POPs在铁矿石烧结烟道气的浓度特征为:dl-PCBs > PCNs > PBDEs> PCDD/Fs > PBDD/Fs。发现了原料,如铁矿粉和回用的飞灰,可能是影响铁矿烧结过程中UP-POPs生成与排放的主要因素。分析了UP-POPs之间相关性,为多种UP-POPs在铁矿石烧结过程中的协同减排提供了理论依据。初步提出了铁矿石烧结过程中UP-POPs的排放因子,并用于中国铁矿石烧结行业UP-POPs排放量的初步估算。PCDD/Fs、dl-PCBs、PCNs、PBDD/Fs和PBDEs的排放因子分别为363 ng WHO-TEQ t-1、1.63 ng WHO-TEQ t-1、24.5 ng TEQ t-1、13.6 ng TEQ t-1和0.064 ng TEQ t-1。这些数据为估算中国铁矿烧结行业UP-POPs的排放量提供了数据支持。
2. 以5个转炉炼钢过程为调查对象,对转炉炼钢过程中UP-POPs的排放水平进行了系统的研究,首次在转炉炼钢烟道气中检测到了PCNs、PBDD/Fs和PBDEs的存在。依据检测的数据,分析了多种UP-POPs在转炉炼钢烟道气中的相对重要性及相关性。几类UP-POPs在转炉炼钢烟道气中的浓度特征为:PCNs > PBDEs >dl-PCBs > PCDD/Fs≈PBDD/Fs。初步提出了转炉炼钢过程中UP-POPs的排放因子,并用于中国转炉炼钢行业UP-POPs排放量的初步估算。PCDD/Fs、dl-PCBs、PCNs、PBDD/Fs和PBDEs的排放因子分别为20.5 ng WHO-TEQ t-1、1.81 ng WHO-TEQ t-1、0.81 ng TEQ t-1、6.5 ng TEQ t-1和0.056 ng TEQ t-1。这些数据为估算中国转炉炼钢行业UP-POPs的排放水平提供了数据支持。
3. 对钢厂厂区空气中几类UP-POPs的水平和特征进行了研究。研究结果显示PBDEs是占总质量浓度最大比例的UP-POPs,约占总质量浓度的87%,其后是PCNs,约占11%。PBDD/Fs在钢厂厂区空气中的质量浓度和TEQ浓度与PCDD/Fs的浓度相当。除PCDD/Fs之外的其它UP-POPs的TEQ浓度约占总TEQ浓度的39%,因而钢厂厂区空气中来自于这部分UP-POPs的污染不容忽视。研究结果将有助于认识钢厂厂区空气中不同UP-POPs对于工人健康风险的相对贡献大小,为进一步制定控制钢铁生产过程中UP-POPs的措施提供数据参考。
英文摘要:     Polychlorinated and polybrominated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) [including PCDD/Fs, PCBs, polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), PBDD/Fs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)] have similar physicochemical properties, toxicities and toxic mechanisms, and environmental behaviors. These POPs can be unintentionally produced during industrial thermal processes, and can be called UP-POPs. It has been widely recognized that steelmaking processes are important sources of PCDD/Fs and PCBs. PBDD/Fs and PCNs have also been found to be unintentionally produced and released during iron ore sintering (SNT) in recent studies. However, there have been very few studies of the production of other emerging POPs during the SNT process, and even less research has been performed on UP-POP emissions from the converter steelmaking process. There is also a lack of information on UP-POP concentrations in the air of steel plants areas. UP-POP emissions from steelmaking plants were studied. The main results are presented below.
    1. The UP-POP concentrations in stack gases emitted by SNT processes at six plants (XH, HX, XJ, RC, TG and SG) were determined. The relative importance of different types of UP-POPs in the stack gas samples were assessed. The concentrations of the UP-POPs that were analyzed decreased in the order dioxin-like (dl) PCBs > PCNs > PBDEs > PCDD/Fs > PBDD/Fs. It was found that raw material, including iron ore and recycled fly ash, was the main influence factor for the UP-POP emission. The correlations between UP-POPs were also analyzed,which provided theoretical basis for synergistic emission reduction of UP-POPs in the SNT processes. The data were used to estimate the amounts of the selected UP-POPs that are emitted during SNT processes. The estimated PCDD/F, dl-PCB, PCN, PBDD/F, and PBDE emission factors [expressed in World Health Organization (WHO) toxic equivalents (TEQs)] were 363 ng WHO-TEQ t−1, 1.63 ng WHO-TEQ t−1, 24.5 ng TEQ t−1, 13.6 ng TEQ t−1, and 0.064 ng TEQ t−1, respectively.
    2. The UP-POP concentrations in stack gases emitted by converter steelmaking processes at five plants (XH, XJ, RC, TG and SG) were determined. This was the first time PCN, PBDD/F, and PBDE concentrations in stack gases emitted from converter steelmaking processes have been determined. The relative importances of and correlations between different types of UP-POPs in the stack gas samples were assessed. The concentrations of the UP-POPs that were analyzed decreased in the order PCNs > PBDEs > dl-PCBs > PCDD/Fs ≈ PBDD/Fs. The data were used to estimate the amounts of the selected UP-POPs that are emitted during SNT processes. The estimated PCDD/F, dl-PCB, PCN, PBDD/F, and PBDE emission factors were 20.5 ng WHO-TEQ t−1, 1.81 ng WHO-TEQ t−1,0.81 ng TEQ t−1,6.5 ng TEQ t−1, and 0.056 ng TEQ t−1, respectively. These results could help improve our understanding of UP-POP concentrations in the environment and in the development of a POP inventory.
    3. The concentrations and profiles of UP-POPs in the air of steel plant areas were studied. PBDEs were the most abundant of the UP-POPs that were analyzed, contributing about 87% of the total UP-POP mass concentration. PCNs were the next most abundant UP-POPs, contributing 11% of the total UP-POP concentration. The PBDD/F mass concentrations and TEQs were comparable to the PCDD and PCDF mass concentrations and TEQs. Excluding the PCDDs and PCDFs, the other four types of UP-POP contributed up to 39% of the total TEQs, indicating that the contributions of dl-compounds to the total TEQs should not be overlooked. These results will improve our understanding of the relative contributions of different types of UP-POPs to pollution loads in the air in and around steel plants and the health hazards posed by these pollutants to people living and working in areas around steel plants.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34342
Appears in Collections:环境化学与生态毒理学国家重点实验室_学位论文

Files in This Item:
File Name/ File Size Content Type Version Access License
李素梅--钢铁生产过程中UP-POPs的排放水平和特征研究.pdf(1995KB)学位论文--限制开放 联系获取全文

Recommended Citation:
李素梅. 钢铁生产过程中UP-POPs的排放水平和特征研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
Service
Recommend this item
Sava as my favorate item
Show this item's statistics
Export Endnote File
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[李素梅]'s Articles
CSDL cross search
Similar articles in CSDL Cross Search
[李素梅]‘s Articles
Related Copyright Policies
Null
Social Bookmarking
Add to CiteULike Add to Connotea Add to Del.icio.us Add to Digg Add to Reddit
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 
评注功能仅针对注册用户开放,请您登录
您对该条目有什么异议,请填写以下表单,管理员会尽快联系您。
内 容:
Email:  *
单位:
验证码:   刷新
您在IR的使用过程中有什么好的想法或者建议可以反馈给我们。
标 题:
 *
内 容:
Email:  *
验证码:   刷新

Items in IR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

 

Valid XHTML 1.0!
Copyright © 2007-2018  中国科学院生态环境研究中心 - Feedback
Powered by CSpace