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题名: 北京城市绿地草坪昆虫群落及其对景观格局变化的响应
作者: 苏芝敏
学位类别: 博士后
答辩日期: 2015-07
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 欧阳志云
关键词: 城市绿地,昆虫多样性,物种密度,吸虫器法,景观格局,斑块面积,, Urban green space, Insect diversity, Species density, Suction trapping, Landscape pattern, Patch area
其他题名: Insect Community on the Lawn and its Response to the Changes of Landscape Pattern of Urban Green Space in Beijing
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:     中国城市化已进入关键发展阶段,2011年中国内地城市化率首次突破50%,预计到2030年中国城市人口将超过9亿。北京,作为中国的首善之区,其城区在近 30多年扩张了6倍,城市化速度之快堪称典型。快速城市化的过程必然伴随着城市景观的剧烈变化。城市绿地既是城市生物物种的重要涵养场所,也是反映景观格局变化的重要单元。因此,开展关于北京城市绿地景观格局与生物多样
性的关系研究,可为中国乃至全世界的其它城市提供典范。
    本研究以城市绿地草坪中的昆虫为研究对象,于 2012和2013年7月利用改进的吸虫器法对北京城区 45个绿地斑块进行为期两年的系统调查,同时计算各调查斑块及其周边 500 m缓冲区内的三类景观格局指数,分析了不同绿地类型和城市绿地景观格局对昆虫多样性的影响,主要结果如下:
(1)北京城区绿地草坪昆虫群落特征
北京城市绿地中的昆虫种类较为多样。本研究从1620个样方中,共采集到昆虫 11211只,隶属于11目98科213种,以半翅目、双翅目和膜翅目是三个最常见、丰富度最高的类群,以盲蝽、缘蝽、叶蝉、蝇类和寄生蜂为主要种类。三类食性的昆虫个体数依次是植食性>杂食性>肉食性,个体数比例约为 11:6:3;而昆虫多样性指数则为植食性>肉食性>杂食性。
(2)北京城区绿地昆虫空间分布格局
单个调查地点的昆虫物种数来看,每个绿地斑块至少有 8个物种,超过一半的调查地点昆虫物种数在 20–40种之间。各环城带草坪中的昆虫物种密度之间并没有显著差异。对优势类群空间分布进行分析发现,半翅目在西四环内外几个大面积又缺乏人工管理的绿地斑块中的个体数明显高于其它斑块。城市绿地的植被种植类型对草坪上的昆虫具有一定的影响,人工草坪中的昆虫物种密度显著低
于野生杂草。
(3)城市绿地类型对昆虫多样性的影响
无论是总群落还是分绿地类型亚群落,昆虫物种多度均符合对数正态分布,估计昆虫群落总物种数为 320种。从分绿地类型亚群落来看,不同绿地类型中的昆虫在数量上(包括物种丰富度和多样性指数)有一定的差异,但未达到显著水平。居住区绿地的昆虫物种丰富度最高;公园绿地的物种丰富度最低,但物种丰富度仍然呈上升趋势。从昆虫种类构成和群落结构上,不同绿地类型之间存在显
著的差异,荒地与其它 5种类型的差异最明显。
(4)城市绿地景观格局对昆虫物种密度的影响
从物种密度的角度探讨绿地景观格局与生物多样性之间的关系,结果发现斑块形状和面积、景观组成和配置是城市绿地中物种密度的重要影响因素。斑块面积、连接度、平均最近邻体距离、景观多样性指数和面积加权平均形状指数等5个景观变量在解释昆虫物种密度变异中具有显著的独立贡献,分别解释了 19.9%、13.9%、13.8%、11.0%和 8.3%的物种密度变异。斑块面积越大、连接度和形状指数越高,绿地斑块中的昆虫物种密度越低。不考虑连接度和形状指数的情况下,最高的物种密度出现在面积小于 500 m2的绿地斑块中。
    这些结果表明:(1)北京城市生态系统中的昆虫种类多样,但是个别优势类群也非常明显,特别是具刺吸式口器的植食性昆虫种群优势度高,容易对植物造成危害,需预防其种群暴发而成为主要害虫。(2)城市绿地类型对昆虫群落没有显著的影响,合理地配置和管理城市中的不同绿地类型,可能有利于提高城市绿地的总体昆虫多样性。(3)改善一些被认为对生物保护具有重要作用的生境质量因子——如斑块面积和连接度等——实际上未必能达到预期的保护效果;在进行城市规划时应同时考虑本地生境质量和周边景观组成的改善。
英文摘要:     China’s  urbanization reached  a  historic  point in  2011  when, for  the  first time,  the urban population exceeded  the rural population, a  rapid trend that will  be maintained in the  coming 20 years.  Beijing, as the  capital and second  largest city  of China, is  a typical  example of  urban development.  The process  of  urbanization has  progressed sharply in recent decades,  with urban areas expanding nearly six-fold  over the last 30
years, more so than during  the previous 3000 years. The rapid urbanization  process is often  accompanied  by the  dramatic  changes  in  the  urban  landscape.  Urban  green space is an important refuge of biodiversity in urban  areas, and it is also the important unit    reflexing   the    landscape    pattern   change.    Therefore,    understanding   the biodiversity–urbanization relationships  in  Beijing may  provide a  suitable model  for
other cities in China, and even the world.
    In this  study, we collected insects  from 45 green  patches in Beijing  during July in 2012 and  2013 using  suction sampling.  Eleven  environmental variables,  sorted into three categories  — local  patch characteristics,  landscape composition and  landscape configuration — were calculated within a radius of 500 m around each surveyed green patch. We  examined the effects  of different  green space types  and landscape  pattern on insect diversity. The main results are as follows:
1. Characteristics of insect community in urban green space of Beijing
    Urban  green  spaces  of  Beijing  harbor  lots  of  insect  species.  A  total  of  11211 individuals of insect  were collected, belonging to 213  species, 98 families, 11 orders. Hemiptera,  Diptera  and  Hymenoptera  were  the  three   most  abundant  orders.  The dominant groups include  Miridae, Coreidae, leafhoppers,  flies and parasitoids. Insect individual  number  was  followed   by  herbivorous  (6169)>omnivorous (3398)>carnivorous (1644), the ratio of the  number of individuals  about 11:6:3; while  insect diversity index was followed by herbivorous > carnivorous > omnivorous.
2. Spatial distribution pattern of insect in urban green space of Beijing
    Each  green  patche  had  at  least  eight  insect  species.  In  more  than  half   of  the surveyed  patches,  insect  species   numbers  ranged  from  20  to   40.  There  was  no significant difference in  species density among different  urban zones. The vegetation types  of urban  green  space  had a  certain  effect  on insect  diversity,  and  the insect species density in artificial lawns was significantly lower than that in the wild ones.
3. Effects of urban green space types on insect diversity
    Octave-based  relative  abundance   plots  for  all   types  of  green  space   produced convincing  lognormal distributions.  The  theoretical  total  number  of species  in  the universe being sampled was 320. Among different types of green space, insect species richness  and   diversity  indices  were  different,but not to a  significant  level.In residential green space, the curves of the observed richness and two richness estimates based on  Michaelis-Menten equation  and ACE  was highest  than that  in other  green space, and  those of  park green space  were lowest.  However, uniques and  duplicates curves  for park  and  street green  space  were rising.  Insect  community  composition varied significantly among different green space types  (adonis, F = 2.098, P = 0.002),
with the vacant land significantly different from all the other green space types.
4. Effects of urban green space landscape pattern on insect species density
     It  was   found  that   insect  species  density   was  significantly  affected   by  patch characteristics (patch  shape  and area  of  urban green  space), landscape  composition (Shannon diversity index) and landscape configuration  (Connectivity). The results the hierarchical partitioning  analysis indicated that  five explanatory  variables, i.e., patch area (with 19.9% independent effects), connectivity (13.9%), distance to nearest  patch
(13.8%),  diversity  for  patch  types  (11.0%), and  patch  shape  (8.3%),  significantly contributed to insect  species density. With  the partial least  squares regression model,we found  species  density was  negatively related  to  patch area,  shape,  connectivity,diversity for patch types and proportion of impervious surface at the significance level of p  <  0.05, and  positively related  to proportion  of vegetated  land.  Regression tree
analysis further  showed that  the highest  species density was  found in  green patches with an area <500 m2.
These results indicated that: (1)  Urban green spaces of Beijing harbor lots  of insect species, but some individual dominant  groups is also very obvious that it  is needed to prevent  the population  from  outbreaking. (2) Different  types  of urban  green  space have no significant effect on insect communities. Rational allocation and management of different  green types  may be conducive  to improve the  overall insect  diversity of urban  green  space.   (3)  Improvement  in  habitat   quality,  such  as  patch   area  and connectivity  that  are  typically  thought  to  be  important  for   conservation,  did  not actually  increase  species  density.  However,  increasing  compactness  (low-edge)  of patch shape  and landscape composition  did have the expected  effect. Therefore, it  is recommended that the composition of the surrounding landscape should be considered simultaneously with planned improvements in local habitat quality.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34372
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
苏芝敏. 北京城市绿地草坪昆虫群落及其对景观格局变化的响应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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