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题名: 油气管道建设工程对西北荒漠草原区生态环境影响的定量研究
作者: 肖峻
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2015-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 陈利顶
关键词: 廊道式工程,综合植被指数,缓冲区分析,影响范围,恢复期, linear project constructions, vegetation index, buffer analysis, effect scope, recovery period
其他题名: Quantitative study on the eco-environment effect of pipeline project constructi on desert steppe in Northwest China
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:     油气管道是重要的廊道式工程,在国民经济中发挥着重要的作用。但是,油气管道建设工程不可避免地对途经区域造成了一系列生态环境影响,而且其影响范围广,涉及区域多,过程复杂,带来的生态问题日益得到了学者们的重视。另一方面,荒漠草原区域是重要而又脆弱的生态区,油气管道建设工程不可避免地通过这些区域,因此开展油气管道的生态环境影响的定量研究工作,对于荒漠草原区域的生态管理和恢复工作,有着重要的指导意义和实用价值。
    本文以油气管道工程经过的中国西部典型干旱区为研究对象,选择了三个典型的荒漠草原区进行分析,运用对比分析和缓冲区分析法,研究土地利用和景观格局的变化,分析植被覆盖度受到的影响,判断其直接和间接影响范围。同时选取土壤、植被的各类指数,计算综合土壤质量指数和植被指数,讨论不同管道工程数量的区域的影响差异,分析管道工程的运营期间土壤和植被的影响状况,同时讨论管道上方和周边环境植被和土壤状况恢复的特点,并根据植物群落结构的变化,提出了新的判断管道影响范围和强度的理论范式,最后筛选了影响植被恢复的主要因子,并进行了验证。主要结论如下:
(1)将管道建设的时期分为建设前期、建设期和建设后的恢复期,比较荒漠草原区域不同建设时期管道两侧土地利用类型的变化,发现土地利用类型变化较大,三个时期内管道草地面积持续降低,共计减少32.53%,灌木林地面积增加到24.61%,建设用地面积在建设期增加,但植被恢复期降低。研究区景观异质性提高,原有生态格局发生改变;建设期管道施工作业带及两侧10m范围内植被覆盖度显著低于其他区域。可以认为管道建设是周边区域土地利用类型发生变化的主要驱动因素。
(2)对管道建设对所经过区域的格局指数的变化进行分析,结果发现,管道工程的周边区域景观格局和功能受到了明显的影响,主要的影响区域为管道上方作业区,影响强度随着距管道距离的增加而迅速降低。在管道的建设期及之后的运营期,草地面积逐渐减少,灌木林地和建设用地面积逐渐增加。在斑块类型水平上,原本占据优势的草地景观斑块数量增加,结构复杂程度增加,在景观中优势程度下降,以小斑块为主的灌木林地和建设用地复杂程度和优势程度提高;在景观水平上,景观整体破碎化程度加剧,异质性增加,内部连通性下降,系统稳定性降低。
(3)针对管道工程建设期对植被覆盖度的影响进行分析,结果表明,管道建设主要影响范围(直接影响)为管道上方施工作业带以及两侧10m的范围内,间接影响范围为施工作业带到两侧200-300m范围;恢复期人为措施对研究区植被覆盖度的影响范围为施工作业带;多条管道对植被覆盖度的影响具有累积效应。
(4)比较西气东输I线、II线以及西部原油管道工程在恢复期对植被和土壤产生的影响可以发现,恢复时间较长的I线和原油管道土壤和植被状况较好,表明增加恢复时间有助于降低油气管道工程的生态环境影响;管道上方植被指数虽然较低,但是物种多样性指数却更高,明显高于周边区域,表明管道上方由于人为干扰加大,植被生长状况较差,但干扰却能引入外来物种,并增加管道上方的物种数量。
(5)比较一条管道通过的区域与有多条管道通过的区域之间受到的生态环境影响的差异,结果发现在区域内修建的管道数量越多,对植被的影响范围增大;同时,土壤受影响范围主要为管道施工作业带,而植被对管道的干扰比较敏感,植被指数更适合作为管道影响的指示指标。
(6)对受管道建设影响的区域内植被恢复的主要影响因素进行筛选后发现,降雨量、日照时间等环境因素,恢复时间,受影响频率等工程因素是影响管道工程和周边植被自然恢复的重要的因子。长时间的自然恢复能使得除了管道施工作业带、伴行路之外的其他区域的植被在较长的时间内恢复到原始状况。即便是管道上方的区域,在长时间、低干扰的恢复条件下,植被覆盖度也能得到较好恢复。伴行路影响的管道外侧10m区域是管道工程植被恢复的重点区域。
(7)比较管道施工作业带外侧植物群落组成和结构的变化,认为植物群落可以根据对油气管道工程的响应机制的不同分为三类,油气管道的运营期边缘效应最明显的区域为管道外侧的50-100m的区域。
英文摘要:     As a linear construction, oil and gas pipeline project construction plays an important role in national economy. However, it inevitably affects the eco-environment of areas that it passes through. Moreover,it passed through many types of ecosystem and caused kinds of environment problems which were given due attention by the public and researchers. On the other hand, desert steppe regions are important and fragile, which are inevitably affected by the oil and gas pipeline project construction. Hence, the quantitative research of eco-environment effect of  pipeline construction could guard the ecology management and restoration, and has important practical significance.
     In this study, three typical eco-fragile areas in the arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China, where large linear construction projects have been conducted, were selected as the case study areas. Comparative analysis and buffer analysis were used to study the change of land-use, landscape pattern and vegetation coverage, and analyze the scope the direct effect and indirect effect. Meanwhile, Soil quality indices (SQI) and vegetation indices (VI) were founded to represent the recovery condition of soil and vegetation pattern during operation period of pipeline project construction, and then discussed the characteristic of soil and vegetation in nature recovery, judged the difference of the effect caused by the frequencies of pipeline construction, and analyzed the most important factors in vegetation recovery. At last, a theoretical paradigm about judging the affect scope and intense was drawn by the case study and was verified. The obtained results of the study are as follows:
(1) Comparing the changes in vegetation cover pattern and land use pattern, we can analyze the influence intensity and extent of oil and gas pipeline in its different construction period (original period, construction period and recovery period). The land use types varied greatly in different stages of construction. Grassland area decreased by 32.53%, while shrub land area increased to 24.61% from 2002 to 2010. Construction land area increases obviously in construction period, and declines after taking vegetation restoration measure. The study area became complicated, and original ecological structure changed. In construction period, vegetation coverage of buffer which is above the pipe and in 10m range was significantly lower than the surrounding areas, and which in 50~100m and 100~200m ranges were significantly different from that in 200~300m range. The oil and gas pipeline construction is the main driving force on the land use types change in desert steppe which is cut up by pipeline.
(2) Pipeline construction influences observably the landscape pattern and its function. The original structure has changed and functions have declined. The main affected area is construction area. Although all the buffers are influenced by the pipeline construction in landscape pattern, the buffer which is farther from the pipeline gets less impact. Grassland area gradually decreased while shrub land and construction land gradually increased. At the class level, the grassland that was dominant in the landscape pattern in 2002 had more patch numbers (NP) than the other years. Its pattern got complex and its area was decreased step by step. On the other hand, both shrub land and construction land had LPI and LSI risen, indicating they got better function and took more important roles. Above the pipeline, the landscape metrics of each class was more varied than other buffers. At the landscape level, a large increase of fragmentation, heterogeneity and reduction of connectedness was found through the selected landscape metrics. It demonstrated that the Integrity of the landscape dropped off, and fragmentation degree heightened. Human disturbances brought by pipeline construction reduced the stability in this area.
(3) A comparing analysis was carried out to judge the effect of pipeline construction period on vegetation coverage. The results showed that the main influence scope (direct affect scope) is the construction area with the range around 10m; the indirectly affect scope could reach 200m on either side of the pipeline. In vegetation-restoring period, construction area above the pipeline was the main influence scope. Accumulative effect was found in the area by which more than one pipeline construction passed.
(4) Comparing the effect of WA of WEGP I, ii and WCOP on soil and vegetation in recovery period, we can found that recovery time was longer, the soil and vegetation conditions were better. Moreover, although WAs of three pipelines had lower vegetation index in S1 region, they had well species diversity, which were higher than the surrounding areas. Alien species got into ecosystems in the WA of the pipeline due to the human disturbance. Therefore, it suggested that the pipeline still had an impact on the surrounding environment in recovery period.
(5) Compared with the areas that different numbers pipeline project passed through, a conclusion could be drawn that multi pipelines extent the influence area. VI was more sensitive to human disturbance than SQI, which were suitable to be an indication of the pipeline impact.
(6) Major impact factors are sorted to decide the most important factors on affecting the vegetation recovery. The results showed that rainfall and total time of sunshine were most important environmental factors on nature recovery surrounding the pipeline project construction while distance from the pipeline and period of the recovery were the important engineering factors on recovery. Long nature recovery and low disturbance intensity would help the affected area get a better recovery except the areas above pipeline and the accompanying road. 10m area was the key area in which restoration method should be taken.
(7) The structure of the plant community was altered by the effect of pipeline project construction. Plants species could be divided into three classes by the response to the effect. The edge affect was observed in the area that was 50m - 100m far from pipeline. The structure of plant community significantly changed in these areas.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34447
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
肖峻. 油气管道建设工程对西北荒漠草原区生态环境影响的定量研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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