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题名: 海河流域径流与水环境变化特征及成因分析
作者: 徐华山
学位类别: 博士后
答辩日期: 2015-02
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 欧阳志云 ; 郑华
关键词: 海河流域 ; 水资源 ; 水环境 ; 变化特征 ; 变化机制,the Haihe river basin ; Water resources ; Water environment ; Change characteristic ; Change mechanism
其他题名: The Change Characteristics and Mechanism of the Runoff and Water Environment in the Haihe River Basin
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:       海河流域地处半湿润、半干旱区,是我国人口密集、高城市化水平区域之一,也是我国重要的工业基地和高新技术产业基地,所处的华北平原还是我国三大粮食生产基地之一,海河流域在我国国民经济发展中具有重要战略地位。与此同时,海河流域也是我国水资源极度短缺、水资源供需矛盾最为突出、水环境污染和水生态退化最为严重的流域,水资源短缺和水环境污染不仅直接影响区域生态环境质量,而且危及经济社会可持续发展。因此,研究海河流域水资源与水环境演变特征,揭示自然因素与人类活动干扰对水资源和水环境变化的影响方向和程度,对于合理利用和保护水资源、促进区域可持续发展具有重要意义。
      本研究利用海河流域73 个水文站点监测数据,采用Mann- Kendall(M- K)和Pettitt检测法分析了海河流域内滦河、潮白河、永定河、大清河、子牙河和漳河6 个子流域多年径流变化特征;利用104 个气象站点1961-2010 年降水和气温数据、1982-2010 年植被覆盖度数据、土地利用变化(1990、2000 和2010 年)数据和ET 模型,结合区域发展与保护政策,揭示了气候变化和人类活动(尤其是重大生态建设工程)对径流变化的贡献;利用水环境监测数据,分析了海河流域2002-2010 年水环境变化时空特征,并采用冗余分析方法,揭示了土地利用、产业结构和工农业活动对形成流域水环境空间格局的贡献量。主要结果为:          (1)1961-2010 年,海河流域6 个子流域年径流量均显著下降。上世纪70 年代末80年代初(1978 年前后)6个子流域年径流量发生了第一次突变,但上世纪90年代中后期(1998年前后)只有滦河、潮白河、永定河和大清河流域年径流量发生了第二次突变。
    (2)人类活动和气候变化共同影响流域年径流量变化。① 6个流域年径流量发生第一次突变时间与我国农田联产承包责任制实施时间基本吻合,农田联产承包责任制对该时段流域径流量减少具有重要影响;气温和降水对流域年径流量减少也有一定贡献,二者均伴随年径流量突变而有突变发生,只是前者的突变达到显著水平,后者突变不显著;② 河流年径流量发生了第二次突变的滦河、潮白河、永定河、大清河流域均落在三北防护林建设和京津风沙源治理区域。海河流域植被变化对年径流量变化的贡献率为24%,其中,滦河、潮白河、永定河、大清河和子牙河流域分别为13.47%、21.89%、31.63%、19.27%和22.93%,三北防护林和京津风沙源治理工程实施加剧了河流年径流量减少。
    (3)河流径流减少导致河流断流加剧。评估的21条主要河流中,1980-2010 年间超过50%的监测断面断流天数显著增加。永定河、大清河子流域断流天数增加尤为显著,空间上
下游平原区河流断流天数增加趋势明显。
    (4)海河流域水环境污染严重,2010年,I-III类水体河长比例仅为36%,V类和劣V类水体河长比例达64%,2002-2010年间,仅滦河山区I-III类水体呈显著增加趋势(p<0.05),漳卫河山区、大清河淀西平原、北四河下游平原III类以下水体呈增加趋势。
    (5)土地利用、产业结构和工农业活动是影响水环境变化的主要因素。1000m河岸带自然植被覆盖度、耕地面积比例、工业氨氮排放强度、农业人口密度、第二产业国内生产总值密度解释了河流水质空间变异的67.2%,上述单因子分别解释了流域水环境空间变异的36.2%、43%、31.6%、31.4%和26.6% (p<0.05)。
      可见,在气候变化和人类活动的双重影响下,海河流域水资源显著减少、水环境显著退化,区域发展和保护政策对水资源、水环境变化的影响不容忽视。实施农田节水工程、因地制宜和科学合理的实施生态建设工程对于缓解水资源短缺具有重要意义;加强河岸带建设、控制面源污染和工业污染排放是控制海河流域水环境恶化的主要措施。
英文摘要:       The Haihe River basin is located in a semi-humid and semi-arid region, which is one of the regions with dense population and relatively high urbanization level, and it is also an important industrial hi-tech industrial base in China. The North China Plain where the Haihe River basin located is one of the three major grain production bases in China and it has an important strategic position in the national economic development. The Haihe River basin is also one of the river basins with the most prominent conflict between water resources supply and demand, and with the most serious water environment deterioration and water ecological degradation in China. The ecological environment of the area is fragile, and excessive exploitation of water resources has caused river dry-up, enlarged groundwater funnels and reduced wetland areas. The shortage of water resources in Haihe River basin and environment problems have seriously impacted the social and economic development and the ecological environment improvement have become key problems in the social and economic development in this area. Therefore, studying on hydrological changes in Haihe River basin and their driving factors are of important significance to scientifically planning comprehensive utilization of water resources, raising the level of water resources management and supporting sustainable social and economic development in the Haihe
River basin in the future.
      Using runoff data collected at 73 representative hydrological stations, with the help of
Mann-Kendall test and the Pettitt test, the characteristics of runoff trend changes in the Haihe river basin including 6 sub-basins including Luanhe river basin, Chaobaihe river basin,
Yongdinghe river basin, Daqinghe river basin, Ziyahe river basin and Zhanghe river basin were
analyzed. Using precipitation and air temperature data collected at 104 precipitation stations from 1961 to 2010, vegetation coverage data from 1982 to 2010, land use cover of 1990, 2000 and 2010, and ET model, combined with the regional development and the protection policy, it reveals the contribution of climate change and human activities, especially major ecological construction projects to the change of water resources. Using water environment monitoring data, the paper analyzes the space-time water environment change characteristics in Haihe river basin from 2002 to 2010. With redundancy analysis method, the contribution of the land use, industrial structure and industrial and agricultural activities to the formation of river basin water environment spatial pattern revealed. The main results are as follows:
      (1) From 1961 to 2010, runoff dropped significantly in 6 sub-basins of Haihe river basin. The first abrupt change happened in all the 6 sub-basins in the late 1970 s and early 1980 s
(around 1978), while in the 1990 s (around 1998), The second abrupt change happened only in the Luanhe river, the Chaobai river, the Yongding river and Daqinghe river.
(2) Both human activities and climate change impact the annual runoff change. The time
when the first abrupt annual runoff change happened in the six river fits in the time when the
implement of farmland contract responsibility system, and the farmland contract responsibility system has important effects on basin runoff reduction. Temperature and precipitation also has a certain contribution to the reduction of the annual runoff at that time, and abrupt changes of thr runoff are always accompanied by the abrupt changes of the two factors, but the former reached significant level, while the latter was not significant; The second annual runoff abrupt change happened in the Luanhe river, the Chaobai river, the Yongding river, Daqinghe river basins are all located in Three Norths Forest Shelter and the Beijing-Tianjin Sandstorm Sources Control Project area. In the Haihe river basin, the contribution rate of vegetation change to annual runoff change was 24%, and to the Luanhe river, the Chaobai river, the Yongding river, Daqinghe river and Ziya river, the contribution rate were 13.47%, 21.89%, 31.63%, 21.89% and 22.93% respectively. And the implementation of the Three Norths Forest Shelter and the Beijing-Tianjin Sandstorm Sources Control Project exacerbated the annual runoff reduction.
(3) River runoff decrease from 1980 to 2010 results in the significantly increase of the cutoff
days in more than 50% of the Haihe river basin.
(4) Water environmental pollution in Haihe river basin is serious. In 2010, the river length of
I - III class water quality was only 36%, and that of V and substandard V class was 64%. During 2002-2010, I-III class water was significantly increased (p<0.05) along the Luan river mountains only. But class III water in the Daqinghe river Dianxi plain, Beisi river downstream plain showed a trend of increase.
(5) Land use, industrial structure and industrial and agricultural activities are the main
factors influencing the change of water environment. the natural vegetation coverage, the ratio of farmland, the industrial amino nitrogen emission intensity, the rural population density and the secondary industry output density explained 67.2% of the total amount of water quality variance, and each of the single factor explained 36.2%, 43%, 31.6%, 31.4% and 26.6% (p<0.05) of that respectively.
    From above, we can conclude that The method proposed in this paper can be considered as a useful tool for developing land cover guidelines and for prioritizing locations for implementing management practices to maintain stream water quality standard in a large river basin.
     Under the dual effects of climate change and human activities, water quantity significantly decreases, meanwhile, the water quality deteriorates rapidly in Haihe river basin. The influence of regional development and protection policy on water resources and the change of water environment should not be ignored. The implementation of farmland water-saving engineering, adjust measures to local conditions and the implementation of the scientific and reasonable ecological construction project is of great significance for alleviating water shortage. To strengthen the construction of riparian zone, control non-point source pollution and industrial pollution emissions are the main measures to control the Haihe river basin water environment deterioration.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34452
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
徐华山. 海河流域径流与水环境变化特征及成因分析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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