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题名: 城市社区生活垃圾的生态工程技术集成 及全过程复合生态管理研究
作者: 徐琬莹
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2015-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 王如松 ; 周传斌
关键词: 社区,生活垃圾,城市代谢,技术集成,生命周期,复合生态管理,Urban communities ; Municipal solid waste ; Urban metabolism ; Technology integration ; Life cycle,Integration ecology management
其他题名: Study on technology integration and life cycle based comprehensive management of municipal solid waste in urban communities
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:       社区是城市生活垃圾管理的源头和重要环节。本文系统辨识了城市生活垃圾静脉代谢的“源-渠-库-汇”的生态过程,并综合使用了文献分析、调研、小试试验等研究手段,建立了城市社区尺度(源)生活垃圾生态工程技术的参数库、模型库和方法库,构建了社区生活垃圾管理系统的技术筛选、系统集成与复合评价方法,以北京、贵阳等3 个不同类型的社区为案例进行了实证研究。基于生命周期分析、费用效益分析和社会网络分析方法,探索了以社区管理为核心的城市生活垃圾静脉代谢全过程物质流-资金流-信息流综合分析方法,研究了北京市不同情景模式下可堆肥垃圾管理的环境影响、经济效益和不同利益主体的社会参与机制。以上为基础,提出了促进城市生活垃圾“源-渠-库-汇”综合管理的对策建议。本文的主要研究结果包括:
(1)提出了城市生活垃圾静脉代谢系统由“源”、“渠”、“库”、“汇”四类生态过程构成,并建立了城市生活垃圾管理过程“源-渠-库-汇”辨识方法,同时建立了以“五化”为目标的系统动力学模型,得出技术应用、管理方法、文化引入是影响其生态过程的重要调控因素。以中国和美国的城市生活垃圾管理系统为研究对象,分析比较生活垃圾的“源-渠-库-汇”生态过程和结构。明确了我国生活垃圾管理问题的生态学根源在于:1)“源”过程的技术和管理缺乏,成为制约后端垃圾管理的关键环节;2)可回收垃圾的“渠”过程管理不规范,可堆肥垃圾分流“渠”的不完善;3)城市生活垃圾管理的“库”和“汇”有待进一步拓展和调控,如可堆肥垃圾的固液肥料将其原有的“污染汇”转变为“营养汇”;4)排放系数、可回收垃圾分流率和可堆肥垃圾分流率是生活垃圾代谢过程调控的关键因子;5)“源”分流和处理技术可以实现30%-90%的厨余垃圾和可回收垃圾的资源化利用。
(2)结合实验、调研、文献综述等方法,建立了城市社区“源”的生活垃圾处理技术参数库,其技术类型包括垃圾桶、垃圾分拣/分类、垃圾袋、可堆肥垃圾减量化与资源化、可回收垃圾减容等。建立的参数库包括基础参数、环境参数、经济参数、社会参数、管理参数等5 个方面。
(3)构建了以城市社区为基本单元的技术筛选、系统集成决策模型及多目标复合评价方法,以不同类型、不同边界条件的社区提供源头生活垃圾管理方案,并在北京、贵阳等地的社区开展实证研究。研究结果表明,韶九社区、纳帕溪谷社区、振华社区的垃圾分流率分别达到17.52%、58.78%和24.34%。通过脱水和堆肥技术,韶九社区的可堆肥垃圾资源化率达97.57%,而纳帕溪谷社区可堆肥垃圾减量化率达42.97%。采用层次分析法评价社区垃圾管理的经济、环境、社会、管理效益,3 个实证小区的综合评分分别为59.83、62.13、65.30。
(4)建立了以城市社区为核心的垃圾物质流-资金流-信息流综合分析方法,并以北京市可堆肥垃圾为案例进行实证研究。结果表明:1)开展源头分类/分拣的生活垃圾管理系统,其全过程管理的环境影响明显低于混合收运与末端处置,填埋处置情景的全球变暖潜值高达0.09 kgCO2 当量/人▪a,焚烧处理情景的酸化影响潜值高达0.053 kgSO2 当量/人▪a,均远远高于基于社区分类调控的情景。2)家庭和社区的就地堆肥产生最低的净经济效益(-347.06 元/t),而“可堆肥垃圾分流—单独直运—集中堆肥”情景可产生最高的净经济效益(-124.57 元/t),且高于集中分选、焚烧、填埋等情景,在计入削减污染带来的外部收益后社区垃圾减量与分流可能带来更高的经济效益。3)基于社会网络方法分析不同利益主体参与可堆肥垃圾管理的兴趣与可能性,研究表明,我国的可堆肥垃圾管理中,垃圾末端处理的利益主体与上游、中游关系不紧密,而且兴趣度不高。上游、中游、下游的政府部门之间缺乏有效的沟通与协作。在垃圾管理系统的源头引入企业形式的利益主体(垃圾分类管理服务公司),将可能促进我国的垃圾分类与全过程资源化利用。
(5)基于上述研究结果,本研究提出了社区垃圾分类管理企业引入、社区生态农业文化植入、推广垃圾肥料利用、规范化废品集散中心建设、社区垃圾处理设施及其处理技术标准完善等促进生活垃圾社区源头管理的对策与建议。
英文摘要:       Urban community is one of cradles and an key element in the municipal solid waste(MSW) management. In this research, we are systematically analyze ecological process of cradle-canal-bank-sink in the urban vein MSW metabolism. Then, the integrated application methods of literature, survey, and experiment built database,models base and approaches base of “source”ecological technology in urban communites.At the same time, the technologies selection, integration and comprehensive assessment of approaches about community MSW management system are built by the empirical study as the samples of approaches in different communities of Beijing and Guiyang city. Afterwards, depending on life cycle assessment(LCA), cost-benefit analysis(CBA) and social network analysis(SNA), We explore comprehensive analysis method of material flow, capital flow, information flow about cradle-canal-bank-sink process in urban MSW vein metabolism based on communities as the an key cell.Finally, we study environmental effects, cost-benefit and the mechanism of social participation under different scenarios in compostables management of Beijing city. Based on the study above,we put forward solutions for cradle-canal-bank-sink management in urban MSW management.The main results as follows,
      (1)It is proposed that urban MSW vein metabolism is composed by “cradle”, “canal”, “bank and “sink” ecological process.Then we built systematical method of “cradle-canal-bank-sink” process in urban MSW management.At the same time, we built system dynamics model for five targets that are reduction,reuse,recycling and recovery and disposal.Finally, taking urban MSW management system as study between the US and China to compare the ecological process and structure of cradle-canal-bank-sink. From the above, the ecology root of MSW management problems in China is:1) lack of “source” process technical and management to become a key point of restriction the end-pipe waste management; 2) The management of canal process is irregular about recyclables, and distributary canals are faulted about compostables;3)The bank and sink are need to promote and control in urban MSW management,for example,recycling of compostables make pollution sink into nutrition sink;4) Waste emission coefficient, recyclables distributary rate
and compostables waste distributary rate is the key factors of the urban MSW metabolic process control;5) “source” distributary,compost and compression technology can shunt and recycle 30% - 90% of recyclables and compostables.
      (2)Combined to experiment, survey and literature review,we built the parameters base of source technology.It divided into three group,including distributary, recycling and
reduction.Waste bin,sorting/second sorting, and compostable bag are belong to distributary
technology.The recycling of communities mainly is compostables,and the reduction technology is compression of recycables. Parameters base included basic, environment, economy,society and management parameters.
      (3)We built the models of technologies selection and integration and an approach of
multiple target comprehensive assessment based on urban communities as the an key cell.Those  models and approaches can give different schemes according to different kinds of communities and basic conditions.The results showed that the distributary rate of Shaojiu,Napaxigu and Zhenhua communities is 17.52%,58.78% and 24.34% respectively by the empirical study as the samples of models and approaches in different communities of Beijing and Guiyang city.The recycling rate of compostables in Shaojiu community can reach 97.57% through compost technology.The reduction rate of compostables in Napaxigu community is 42.97% through dewatering technique.According to factors of economy, environment, society and management,
    ( 4 )We established the comprehensive analysis of material flow, capital flow and
information flow,and took Beijing as case. we obtaned the results as follows, 1) Source
separation/sorting recycling of the environmental impacts are significantly lower than the mixed garbage disposal in the end of pipe.Compostables produce very high environmental impact in the landfill compared to compost. The global warming impact of landfill (scenario 5) is far higher than other 4 scenarios about 0.09 kgCO2 equivalent/people.The acidification impact of incineration (scenario 4) is much higher than other 4 scenarios about 0.053 kgSO2 equivalent/people.2) According to cost benefit analysis, Source separation/sorting and community compost (scenario 1) have low benefit-cost-sub because of high operation cost about -347.06 yuan/t.The benefit-cost-sub of compostables shunt - separate transportion- centralized compost model (scenario 2) is 124.57 yuan/t, even is higher than scenario 3, 4 and 5. So, scenario 2 is the best model at present,and it will bring more economic benefits after counting external benefit of decreasing pollutions. 3) The analysis of relevant stakeholders got interest,power,attitude and relationship in compostables waste management for understanding posibility of their involved.The results show a highly fragmented management system existing in our country,but organic fertilzer factory (FP) and MSW management services company (MSC) have certain information control ability.They play an important role to promote relationship amongs different stakeholders. the comprehensive evaluation of Shaojiu,Napaxigu and Zhenhua communities is 59.83, 62.13 and 65.30 respectively.
      (5)Based on the above research results,we proposed some measures and suggestions,such as, drawing MSW management services company (MSC) into the front MSW management, the introduction of ecological agriculture culture in urban communities, popularizing the use of waste fertilizer, construction of recyclables collecting distributing center,and improvement of community waste facilities construction and standard.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34454
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
徐琬莹. 城市社区生活垃圾的生态工程技术集成 及全过程复合生态管理研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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