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题名: 基于综合指标法的大尺度生态保护与恢复评价研究
作者: 张立伟
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2015-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 傅伯杰 ; 吕一河
关键词: 生态保护 ; 生态系统服务 ; 生态系统服务制图 ; 保护效率 ; 中国,ecological conservation ; ecosystem services ; ecosystem services mapping ; conservational efficiency ; China
其他题名: The assessment of ecological conservation and restoration in the large scales based on the composite indicators
中文摘要: 生态系统服务是近年来生态学研究新的热点领域和学术前沿,是将生态系统与人类福祉联系起来的重要纽带,受到了全球众多国家与研究组织的重视。传统的生态保 护以生物多样性相关组成要素的保护为主,虽然对遏制全球生物多样性的减少起到了重要作用,但是仍未能完全遏制全球持续高速率的物种栖息地的退化与丧失,表 明这种生态保护存在一定的局限性。近年来,将生态系统服务的保护纳入到生态保护与恢复研究中的观点受到了众多学者的关注。考虑生态系统服务的系统性保护策 略将会使传统的基于生物多样性的保护从理论上更加完备、实践上更为高效。生态系统服务制图是将生态系统服务纳入生态保护决策中的关键过程,其着眼于研究区 域特定时空尺度上生态系统服务的结构特征、分布格局及其相互关系的量化评估,能为为决策参与者提供空间位置信息明确的生态系统服务时空变化特征,是将生态 系统服务概念纳入到实际的生态保护决策与实施过程中的关键环节。然而,适用于大尺度上生态系统服务空间制图的方法与数据十分有限、且已有的方法存在着模拟 结果与实际生态系统服务空间分布难以相互对应的问题,而且对适用于大尺度上长期生态系统服务时空变化特征的快速监测评估方法的研究还很薄弱。 本研究通过建立生态系统服务类型与相关环境变量之间的综合指标方法,制图分析了中国2000~2010年间的四种生态系统服务类型(植被碳固定、水源涵 养、土壤保持以及栖息地提供)的时空变化特征、并结合中国生态与土地利用分区对引起这些生态系统服务类型时空变化的驱动因素进行了讨论分析;对我国目前已 建立或报道的七大生态保护和恢复区域(国家级自然保护区、重点生态功能区、重要生态功能区、“两屏三带”区、天然林资源保护工程区、退耕还林工程区以及 “三北”防护林工程区)这四种生态系统服务类型直接或间接的空间保护成效进行了评价;并在综合以上分析的基础上提出了适用于我国国家尺度、面向生态保护需 求的生态系统服务保护优先性分级。主要结果如下: (1) 中国从2000~2010年的植被碳固定、水源涵养、土壤保持以及总生态系统服务提供能力总体上呈现出自西北向东南方向逐渐增加的趋势,栖息地提供服务较 高的地区主要分布在我国的重要山地地区。植被碳固定服务的线性变化趋势显著增加区域主要分布在黄土高原生态地区,显著减少区域主要分布在东北生态地区东北 部以及华北生态地区东南部。水源涵养服务的线性变化显著增加区域主要分布在黄土高原生态地区和青藏高原高寒生态地区的北部,显著减少区域主要分布在西北干 旱生态地区的西北部、青藏高原高寒生态地区南部以及云贵高原生态地区南部。土壤保持服务的线性变化的显著增加区域主要分布在黄土高原生态地区,显著减少区 域主要分布在东北生态地区东北部以及华北生态地区东南部、青藏高原高寒生态地区西南部。栖息地提供服务的线性变化的显著增加区域主要分布在黄土高原生态地 区和青藏高原高寒生态地区北部,显著减少区域主要分布在青藏高原高寒生态区南部、横断山区生态地区西南部以及云贵高原生态地区。总生态系统服务线性变化的 显著增加区域主要分布在黄土高原生态地区,显著减少区域主要分布在东北生态地区东北部以及华北生态地区东南部。 (2) 在2000~2010年间,在西北干旱区、内蒙古高原以及青藏高原南部的总生态系统服务减少主因是由于气候波动引起的植被退化。华北地区的总生态系统服务 状况变差是耕地的减少以及人工用地的增加引起的。东北地区的总生态系统服务提供能力变差的主因是林地退化,林地向耕地草地、耕地向湿地与人工用地的转换。 然而,黄土高原地区的总生态系统服务提高则主要是由于农田向草地、林地类型的转换,引起生态系统服务提供能力的增加。 (3) 中国的七大生态保护和恢复区域内的四种生态系统服务类型及其总生态系统服务的线性趋势变化显著增加面积均大于显著减少面积,总体上各个区域的生态系统服务 状况在2000~2010年间均有所提高。总生态系统服务的显著增加比例最大的为三北防护林工程区、最小的为重点生态功能区;显著减少面积比例最大为重要 生态功能区、最小的为三北防护林工程区。 (4) 在分析七个生态保护和恢复区域中,重要生态功能区的碳固定服务保护成效相对最高,是全国平均水平的1.12倍、其次为天然林保护工程区的1.11倍、其余 几个生态保护和恢复区域均低于全国平均水平;土壤保持服务、水源涵养服务和栖息地提供服务的保护成效在七个区域均小于全国平均水平;总生态系统服务的保护 成效在重要生态功能区最高,为全国平均水平的1.1倍、其次为天然林保护工程区为1.08倍,其余区域均小于全国平均水平且最低的区域为三北防护林工程 区。 (5) 在充分考虑生态系统类型、生态系统服务的能力及其种类的共同保护基础上,剔除总生态系统服务自2000~2010年间的显著减少变化区域后,形成的最终优 先性分级方案中较高与极高级别占到了国土面积的45.56%,保护的总生态系统服务量占到全国总量的86.55%,保护成效为全国平均水平的1.80倍。
英文摘要: Ecosystem services(ES)are the benefits that people can obtain from natural ecosystems, which are the important links between natural ecosystems and human well-being and draws the focus of many countries and organizations around the word. Researches of ES are becoming the new field and academic frontier in ecology in recent years. Traditionally, conservationists have focused on conserving biodiversity, mainly through habitat protection, evaluation of endemic or endangered species distribution, and assessment of threats to survival. Although biodiversity-focused conservation efforts have had a measure of success in conserving species and habitats, the sustained high rate of habitat degradation and species loss reveals deficiencies in this approach Recently, conservationists have not only focused on the conservation of biodiversity, but have also begun focusing on both the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable provision of ES. The spatially explicit mapping of key areas for ES supply is an essential step of incorporating ES into policies and practices in order to ensure the continuous provision of ES and associated benefits to humans. Maps of ES are an important communication tools for stakeholders, decision makers and institutions, enabling them to spatially identify and weigh which locations should be maintained due to their high value of ES. Although ES mapping are helpful tools in the processes of decision making, a number of challenges in relation to the credibility, salience and legitimacy of maps also need to be mentioned during the using processes. Moreover, the spatial-temporal scales, assessing methods and data availability of the decision-making project significantly impact the accuracy of ES maps. Especially, the methods of mapping ES in large scales and long-term monitoring are still insufficient. In this study, a series of surrogated indicators were built, based on the relationships of ES and multiple environmental factors, to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns of four types of ES in China from 2000 to 2010. These ES are include carbon capture services of vegetation(CC), water provision and purification(WP), soil conservation(SC) and habitat protection(HP) services of ecosystems. All these ES are critical for the ecological conservation and restoration in broad spatial scales. The driving factors and conservation efficiency of the four ES types in the seven conservation and restoration regions (National natural reserves, Key ecological function areas, Important ecological function areas, “Two shelters and three zones” of conservational regions, Natural forest resources protection project, Program to return farmland to forests, “Three north” shelterbelt project) of China were assessed that based on the results of ES mapping. Finally, the priority levels of ES in China were proposed in the study. The main results were as follows: (1) From 2000 to 2010,the spatial patterns of CC, WP, SC and total ES are increase from the northwestern to southeastern of China while the HP more locate at the mountain areas of China. The significant increased areas of CC are locate at the Loess Plateau while the significant decreased areas are main locate at northeastern and northern China ecological regions. The significant increased areas of the linear trend of WP main locate at the northern of Loess Plateau and Qinghai-Tibet Plateau while the decreased areas more locate at the northwestern of Northwest Arid Area, southern of Qinghai-Tibet and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The significant increased areas of SC more locate at Loess Plateau while the decreased areas main locate at the northeastern of the Northeast ecological region and the southeastern of the Northern China. The significant increased areas of HP main locate at the Loess Plateau and the northern of Qinghai-Tibet ecological regions while the decreased areas distribute at the southern of Qinghai-Tibet, the southwest of Hengduan Mountains and Yunnan-Guizhou regions. T
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34466
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Recommended Citation:
张立伟. 基于综合指标法的大尺度生态保护与恢复评价研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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