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题名: 区域生态保护规划方法与应用研究
作者: 张路
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2015-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 欧阳志云
关键词: 区域生态保护,系统保护规划,生物多样性,生态系统服务,人类干扰,空间优化,Regional ecological conservation, Systematic conservation planning, Biodiversity, Ecosystem service, Human disturbance, Spatially optimal
其他题名: Method and application research of ecological conservation planning on regional scale
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:       近年来我国生态保护用地与经济发展用地的冲突愈加激烈,传统的区域规划方法已不能满足需求。系统保护规划(Systematic Conservation Planning)作为国际主流保护规划方法对传统方法进行了完善。但该理论在应用中始终存在生物多样性替代指标如何选择、保护规划成本如何计算、保护目标如何设置、规划结果可靠性如何评估四个热点问题。将这些问题与我国实际情况相结合,发展一套适用于我国的区域生态保护规划方法对指导我国保护资源配置,提高保护体系效率有重要意义。
      因此,本文通过三个规划案例研究在不同尺度探讨了各关键问题在我国生态保护规划中的处理方法。研究对比了物种丰富度和生态系统服务功能作为保护替代指标的差异。对选址运算得到的不同优先区分别使用BP人工神经网络模型评价各区人类干扰现状,根据土地利用变化指数分析人类干扰变化趋势,提出了一种处理人类综合干扰程度与保护成本关系的思路。作为补充,探讨了如何在大尺度缺乏数据的情况下识别某一种人类干扰影响区空间格局的方法。通过选址结果与珍稀生态系统、主要物种栖息地以及现有保护体系的叠加分析论证了选址结果的可靠性和有效性。最终结合三个案例提出了一套符合我国实际情况的区域生态保护规划工作框架。研究的具体结论如下:
      (1)长江流域有17个空间聚集的区域对流域生物多样性保护具有重要价值,总面积38万km2。以17.6%的面积保护了珍稀森林生态系统面积的64.3%和草地生态系统总面积的81.5%。在海南岛,生物多样性保护优先区共5292km2,占海南岛总面积的15.6%,这些区域对11个一级物种栖息地的平均保护比例为71.4%,对生物多样性以外的4种生态系统服务功能的平均保护比例为35.6%。生态系统服务功能保护优先区共12876km2,占总面积的37.9%,对一级物种和服务功能的平均保护比例分别为83.7%和75.3%。而海南岛目前保护区面积为7.09%,未来发展目标为达到全国平均水平15.1%。通过对比发现,生态系统服务功能保护的效果要优于生物多样性保护,但保护体系面积过大,在实际规划中很难达到。而生物多样性保护可以更加直观的选择面积适中的保护极重要区,有更强的指导作用。因此建议在野生动植物保护区规划中应以生物多样性为主要参考,而在水源保护地和海岸带保护地规划中应以生态服务功能为参考。
      (2)在长江流域保护优先区的人类干扰综合评价中,岷山、横断山区、邛崃山区、金沙江上游区4个区域的评价值在17个优先区中仅列11到14位,但结合人类干扰动态分析发现仅有这4个区域的生态系统变化指数为负值,说明这些区域当前人类干扰压力虽然不大,但在近年有明显的生态系统人工化趋势。因此,动态人类干扰评价作为静态评价的补充,可以更全面的评价保护优先区之间的优先性,为保护资源配置提供信息。在仅考虑一种人类干扰时,全国公路网评价案例将道路密度嵌入优化模型,识别出了前25%栖息地保护价值最高的区域同时26%道路密度最大的区域,涉及到40个高速公路路段、62个国家级公路路段和51个铁路路段。该信息可以指导生态保护资源在工程建设的生态治理资源分配。
      (3)研究中为了确定合理的保护目标,在长江流域案例中分析了全部物种保护栖息地30%、60%和根据物种三个级别分别保护栖息地的60%、40%、30%三种情景下选址运算结果的差异。研究发现,两个均一保护目标情景中,保护优先区空间分布差异不明显,选址运算随机性强,难以识别出极重要保护区域。所以,将保护属性按重要性等级划分,分别制定保护目标是最合理的方式。详细目标确定还要根据运算结果和保护体系最适宜面积之间的关系反复调试参数、重新运算决定。
      (4)通过整合关键问题的解决方法,本研究提出了一套适合我国的区域生态保护规划框架,包括评价现有保护体系、选择保护属性、选址规划、人类干扰评价、规划新建保护地5个步骤。无论在我国数据的可获得性还是结局规划中缺乏明确的保护目标和成本限制等方面问题,都有较强的可操作性。
      综合而言,以系统保护规划理念为核心的区域生态保护规划方法可以在不同尺度推进我国保护体系建设,对人类干扰的分析有助于快速识别保护与发展冲突严重区,完成保护体系和资源配置的空间优化。
英文摘要:       Traditional conservation planning method focused on ecosystem mapping which failed to take consideration of the conflict between natural conservation and economic development. This method cannot meet the demand of ecological conservation planning in China under the high rapid of economic development. In contrast to previous methods, Systematic Conservation Planning (SCP) has a broad prospect in China which requires quantitative conservation targets, costs synthesized network connectivity, human disturbances and optimal algorithm for obtaining a spatial-explicit conservation system. However, there are four key issues in the method including biodiversity indicators selection, estimation of conservation cost, setting of a suitable conservation target, and assessment of result reliability that limited the application of SCP. To promote ecological conservation planning on regional scale is going to underpin the prior allocation of China‘s limited conservation resources and efficacy of the system based on the SCP method.
      Therefore, focusing on these issues, three case studies on different scales were carried out to solve these problems. For the first issue, we mapped amount of rare species habitat and important ecosystem service as conservation target to compare the discrepancy between two surrogates respectively in the Yangtze River Basin(YRB) Hainan island(HI). For the second issues, pervious SCP researches tend to protect the planning unit with high protection value and low human disturbance. Unit with high human disturbance is often neglected. In this research, to avoid abandoning these high-value areas, threatening human factors analysis was separated from the optimal. A 6-12-1 BP artificial neural network was used to measure the current status of human disturbances, and a land use/land cover change analysis was used to determine the dynamic of the disturbances. In addition, we obtained spatially explicit findings related to the maintenance of rare wildlife under one type of human disturbance in a region where wildlife protection information is lacking. For the last two issues, we made a scenario analysis to obtain a suitable conservation target in SCP and assessed the reliability and efficiency of site-selection results by an intersection analysis. Summarizing the key issues discussed in case studies, we generated a simple framework of regional ecological planning in China. Detailed conclusions are as follows,
(1) 17 priority areas have been identified in the YRB covering 380,000 km2 (17.6%) which protected 81.5% rare grassland and 64.3% forest ecosystem. In Hainan island, prior area of biodiversity conservation covered 5292km2 (15.6%) in the whole area which protected 71.4% habitat of 11 level Ⅰ species and 35.6% of important ecosystem services areas. Prior area of ecosystem services conservation covered 12876km2 (37.9%) in the whole area which protected 83.7% habitat of 11 level Ⅰ species and 75.3% of important ecosystem services areas. The result demonstrated that the ES protection needs too much land to support ecological conservation, although the regions can obtained more comprehensive conservation effectiveness which is suit for referenced as a supplementary material for the final conservation decision.
(2) In the YRB, current human disturbance of Minshan mountain, Hengduan mountain, Qionglai mountain, and source area of Jinsha river were listed from the eleventh and the fourteenth among 17 priori conservation areas. However, between 2000 and 2010, these areas experienced a declined due to a high speed of artificialization. The result suggested that an assessment of dynamic human impact is critical to detect underlying information behind the current human impact assessment. Furthermore, we identified priori conservation areas under single human impact in the traffic network case. The areas covered 25% top important rare habitat and 26% top traffic impacted areas involving 40 highways, 62 national roads, and 51 railway sections. Our results can be used to allocate highly limited conservation resources in a more efficient and effective manner to facilitate wildlife protection in this region.
(3) In SCP, an explicit protection target is required by the algorithm. To get this target, we set 30%, and 60% for all species‘ habitat and 60%, 40%, 30% for species of different conservation levels. We found that results of same goals algorithm are over randomness and hardly reflect the spatial heterogeneity of the optimal result. It suggested that gradated goals depending on the proximity to extinction of the species seems to be a more effective method for maximizing the conservation target level given a certain cost. The more detailed targets are generated from repeat debug of model parameter until the planning result can meet the land or financial budgets.
(4) By combining all results of case studies in this thesis, we present a unifying framework, which is simple, intelligible and maneuverable, to promote the SCP application and to obtain a spatially-priori conservation system in China. The framework is divided into 5 steps involving assessment of current conservation system, selection of target ecological features, site selection algorithm, assessment of human disturbance, and planning of new protection areas.
      In summary, ecological conservation planning based on the idea of SCP can be used to promote the construction or revision of conservation system in China. Assessment of human disturbance of site-selection algorithm enables a rapid identification of the most conflict areas between development and conservation supporting future conservation system optimization.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34467
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
张路. 区域生态保护规划方法与应用研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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