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题名: 流域尺度生态系统服务之间关系及其景观异质性依赖研究
作者: 张亚君
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2014-11
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 邓红兵 ; 严岩
关键词: 生态系统服务,流域,主成分分析,水源保护区,土地利用/土地覆盖变化,Ecosystem Service, Watershed, Principle Component Analysis, Water Source Area, Land Use/Land Cover Change
其他题名: Relationships Among Multiple Ecosystem Services and Their Consequences of Landscape Heterogeneity
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:       生态系统服务与生态过程、生态系统服务之间关系、生态系统服务综合集成是目前生态系统服务研究的三大热点。生态系统服务之间关系的研究立足于生态系统服务内涵和变化机制的研究,同时也是服务于具体管理措施和社会经济手段的基础,本论文以大伙房水库流域为研究区,基于生态系统服务评估,对流域尺度重要生态系统服务类型之间的相关性进行研究,并从流域生态系统景观构成、形状、格局等角度分析景观异质性与生态系统服务能力供给之间的相互关系。
      本论文的研究方法主要包括基于共同主成分和旋转的主成分分析、典型相关分析和CLUE-S 土地利用变化模拟模型。基于共同主成分和旋转的主成分分析保证了主成分在不同时间序列上的同构性,可以实现不同时段生态系统服务相互关系的对比分析;典型相关分析能够从庞杂的两组变量中找出显著的关系,识别影响不同生态系统服务能力的关键指标,为构建生态系统服务能力回归模型提供依据;CLUE-S 模型结合了空间和非空间两方面的情景设定,充分考虑了驱动因子和区域政策对土地利用变化的影响,基于典型相关分析筛选得到的关键因子变化,构建不同土地利用情景,有助于进一步分析关键指标变化与其对应生态系统服务之间的关系。
      大伙房水库流域2000~2010 年十年间不同生态系统服务的供给能力变化趋势为:流域整体生境质量和城市绿地空间可达度得分总体上升,产水能力和产水量持续增长,分别增加了1.70 mm 和0.93×106 m3,作物生产、肉类生产和林蛙养殖生产能力呈稳步增加,土壤保持能力和土壤保持总量分别增加0.003 t•hm-2和0.001×106 t,而年均净初级生产力持续下降约11%,植被覆盖度年均值总体下降约6.5 个百分点,平均碳密度和碳贮量分别持续减少了0.025 Mg•hm-2 和0.014Tg,流域整体水质净化能力呈下降趋势。流域内12 种生态系统服务均呈现聚集分布特征,且不同年份间的生态系统服务的累积频率分布特征相似,生态系统服
务类型多样性差异不明显,但从生态系统服务分布的热点/冷点区域分析来看,十年间流域生态系统服务分布热点区域面积持续下降,冷点区域面积保持波动性稳定,说明大伙房水库流域整体生态系统服务供给能力呈减弱趋势。
      流域生态系统支持服务(生境质量、净初级生产力和植被覆盖度)、调节服务(氮净化、磷净化、碳储量、土壤保持)和文化服务(城市绿地空间可达度)呈现林地依赖型协同,林地面积百分比越高,则其服务能力值越高;而产品提供服务之间呈现产水与食物供给间权衡关系,即作物生产高、肉类生产高、林蛙养殖生产高、产水能力低。
      流域生态系统景观异质性与其生态系统服务供给能力之间的典型分析结果得出两对典型相关,第一对典型相关表示林地类型面积百分比对具有林地依赖型协同关系的8 种生态系统服务类型具有重要正向影响,林地类型面积百分比愈高,其供给能力均会提高;第二对典型相关表示湿地类型最大斑块指数对生态系统的氮、磷净化能力具有重要正向影响,湿地类型最大斑块指数升高,生态系统对氮、磷元素的净化能力会提升。基于生态系统服务能力与其典型相关分析识别的关键指标的线性回归结果也同样证实了如上结论。结合研究区退耕还林、还草的计划,构建不同用地需求情景,基于大幅退耕还林的情景四得出,其适宜退耕还林的区域,同时其生态系统生境质量、水质净化能力、碳储量水平等有所提高,但产水能力和土壤保持能力下降。
英文摘要:       Ecosystem services and ecological processes, the relationship among ecosystem services, integration of ecosystem services are the three hotspots corresponding to ecosystem services research. The study of the relationship among ecosystem services is not only based on the meanings and change mechanisms of ecosystem services, but also serves as the basis of specific management measures and socio-economic means.      Therefore, based on the ability of ecosystem services evaluation, this paper deeply discussed the relationship among ecosystem services in watershed scale, and analyzed
the correlation between landscape heterogeneity and ecosystem services combing with
landscape composition, shape and configuration.
      This paper employed Principle Component Analysis, Canonical Correlation Analysis and the CLUE-S model. Principle Component Analysis employed in this paper combined with common components and rotation in order to ensure the consistency across different time series, and then can be used to comparatively analyze of relationship among ecosystem services in different times, identify the key indicators affecting the capacity of different ecosystem services, and provide the basis for building the ecosystem services regression model. The CLUE-S model is a combination of both spatial and non-spatial scene setting and comprehensively considers the effects of driving factors and regional policies on land use changes. Based on changes in the key factors to delete selected canonical correlation analysis was to construct different land use scenarios help to further analyze the relationship between ecosystem services and their corresponding key indicators of change.
      Changes of ecosystem services during 2000~2010 in Dahuofang Reservoir watershed showed that, the habitat quality and green space amenity across the whole watershed increased, water production capacity and water production amount continued to grow, increased by 1.7 mm and 0.93 × 106 m3, crop production, meat production and wood frog production capacity has steadily increased, the ability and total amount of soil retention increased by 0.003 t•hm-2 and 0.001 × 106 t, respectively, while the average annual net primary productivity continued decreased by about 11%, the overall annual average vegetation fraction decreased by about 6.5 percentage points, the average carbon density and the amount of carbon storage decreased by 0.025 Mg•hm-2 and 0.014 Tg, respectively, the overall basin water purification capacity decreased. Twelve types of ecosystem services showed aggregated distribution characteristics, and the cumulative frequency distribution of different ecosystem services was similar in different years and the difference of ecosystem services diversity was not obvious, while the distribution of ecosystem services hotspots/coldspots region analysis showed that, ecosystem services and the distribution of hotspots decade watershed area continued to decline, the coldspot area maintained stable volatility, indicating that overall ecosystem services of Dahuofang Reservoir watershed showed decreasing trends.
      Support services in watershed scale (habitat quality , net primary productivity and vegetation fraction), regulating services (nitrogen and phosphorus purification, carbon storage , soil retention) and cultural services (green space amenity) presented forestdependent synergistic, the higher the percentage of forest area, the higher the value of
its service capability. Production services showed tradeoffs between water production and food supply, namely crop production, meat production and wood frog production were high when water production capacity was low, or vice versa.
      The results of Canonical Correlation Analysis between ecosystem services and landscape heterogeneity derived two pairs of canonical correlation. The first pair of canonical correlation indicated the percentage of the area of forest types had an important positive impact on eight forest-dependent ecosystem services, the higher the percentage of the area of forest type, their supply capacity increased. The second pair of canonical correlation represented the largest patch index of wetland ecosystem had an important positive impact on nitrogen and phosphorus purification capacity, the higher the largest patch index of wetland ecosystem, the nitrogen and phosphorus purification capacity of watershed increased. Based on the results of linear regression of key indicators of ecosystem services and its ability to recognize the canonical correlation analysis also confirms the above conclusion. Combined study area for Grain for Green Project, we built four different scenarios under different land cover demands. based on the forth scenario, we can derive the suitable position for grain for green, meanwhile the habitats quality, water purification capabilities, carbon stocks increased to some level, but the water supply and soil retention capacity decreased.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34475
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
张亚君. 流域尺度生态系统服务之间关系及其景观异质性依赖研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2014.
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