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题名: 典型湖泊湿地生态系统服务评价及管理框架
作者: 江波
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2014-11
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 欧阳志云
关键词: 典型湖泊湿地生态系统,生态特征,生态系统最终服务,监测,管理, typical lake wetlands,ecosystem characteristics, final ecosystem services,monitoring,management
其他题名: Typical Lake Wetland Ecosystem Services Evaluation for Management in China
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:       湖泊湿地具有重要的生态价值、文化价值和社会价值。湖泊湿地为人类提供了淡水资源、淡水产品、气候调节、休闲娱乐等生态系统服务。尽管湖泊湿地在维持人类生存和福祉方面扮演着重要的角色,但湖泊湿地是受威胁最严重的生态系统之一。生态系统服务概念为整合生态学和经济学,管理生态系统和人类祝福祉关系提供了全面的框架。最近几十年,国内学者逐渐认识到生态系统服务与政策设计结合的重要性,并试图通过创建生态补偿等经济驱动机制来保护湖泊湿地。政府部门需要可信的生态系统服务评估结果来创建恰当的生态补偿机制,确定生态系统可持续提供服务。然而,现有研究在开展湖泊湿地生态系统服务价值评估时,多混淆生态系统中间服务和最终服务造成重复计算,评估结果存在较大的偏差,在管理决策应用中有很大的局限性。生态生产函数能揭示生态系统服务时空权衡关系和生态特征对生态系统最终服务的边际影响。但由于数据匮缺,现有研究无法构建相应的生态生产函数揭示生态系统特征对生态系统服务的支撑作用。本文以白洋淀(半湿润地区湖泊)、洞庭湖(湿润地区湖泊)、博斯腾湖(干旱区湖泊)等3个典型湖泊湿地生态系统为例,在对3个典型湖泊湿地生态系统服务形成机理及受益者分析的基础上,确定了3个典型湖泊湿地生态系统最终服务评价指标体系,并采用市场价值法、替代成本法、旅行费用法和条件价值法(支付卡式)对3个典型湖泊湿地生态系统服务价值,及白洋淀湿地生态系统服务价值动态变化趋势及趋动因子进行了评价和分析。同时,本研究探讨了湖泊湿地生态系统服务数据监测的必要性及监测指标选取的原则和思路,并构建了湖泊湿地生态系统服务评估和管理框架,以推动湖泊生态系统服务价值评价研究及其在管理决策中的应用。主要结论如下:
      (1)受白洋淀水位变化影响,白洋淀水体、芦苇地、农田三种景观类型1974-2011年发生了极为复杂的变化过程。近37年城镇和农田景观在白洋淀的优势度不断增加,而水体和芦苇地景观逐渐破碎化。景观斑块密度、景观形状指数、香农多样性指数、蔓延度指数在整个时间序列(1974-2011年)上表现出较为复杂的变化过程。
      (2)以2011年为基准年,白洋淀提供的8项生态系统最终服务总价值为115.87×108元,其中气候调节价值占总价值的69.71%。对所评价的8项生态系统最终服务按价值量排序,依次为气候调节>调蓄洪水>休闲娱乐>淡水产品>原材料生产>生物多样性和景观资源保护>水资源供给>固碳。以2010年为基准年,洞庭湖提供的10项生态系统最终服务总价值为2148.93×108元,其中洪水调蓄和气候调节占总价值的91.86%。评价的10项生态系统最终服务按价值量排序,依次为调蓄洪水>气候调节>淡水产品>水资源供给>原材料生产>生物多样性和景观资源保护>固碳>水质净化>休闲娱乐>内陆航运。以2012年为基准年,博斯腾湖提供的生态系统服务总价值为904.04×108元,其中气候调节服务占总价值的98.64%。对所评价的9项生态系统最终服务按价值量排序,依次为气候调节>休闲娱乐>原材料生产>固碳>淡水产品>生物多样性和景观资源保护>水资源供给>水质净化>调蓄洪水。评估结果用直观的数字揭示了典型湖泊湿地生态系统维持区域社会经济发展的作用,为管理部门制定相应的生态补偿制度提供了重要依据。评价指标体系为完善典型湖泊湿地生态系统服务及生态特征监测指标体系,建立动态监测项目,研究典型湖泊湿地生态系统和人类福祉关系提供了重要方向,对区域社会经济可持续发展具有重要意义。
      (3)1980-2007年,白洋淀生态系统服务总价值经历了下降、上升的反复波动趋势。整个时间序列上,淡水产品服务、休闲娱乐服务、生物多样性和景观资源保护3项服务之间呈极显著的正相关(p<0.01),原材料生产服务和固碳服务之间呈极显著的正相关(p<0.01),水资源供给服务和气候调节服务之间呈极显著的正相关(p<0.01),其它服务之间无显著相关性(p>0.05)。受社会经济发展和人口增加影响(受益者增加),淡水产品服务、休闲娱乐服务、生物多样性和景观资源保护3项服务表现为显著的增加趋势(p<0.01)。受人口等因素不断增加的影响,原材料生产服务和固碳服务在整个时间序列表现为显著的下降趋势(p<0.05)。受水面面积不断变化的影响,水资源供给服务和气候调节服务在1980-2007年整个时间序列上反复波动,2项服务与水面面积呈极显著正相关(p<0.01)。
      (4)本文基于①与人类活动和管理措施有直接关联;②与生态系统最终服务有直接关联;③所对应的最终服务指标有可信的经济评价方法;④充分结合现有常规观测指标;⑤操作简便易行,可操作性强;⑥可重复、可尺度扩展;⑦监测成本低等基本准则,构建了湖泊湿地生态系统最终服务核算指标,并构建了湖泊湿地生态系统评估框架和管理框架。论文对湿地保护具有重要的意义。
英文摘要:       Lakes have significant ecological, cultural, and economic value in China. They supply drinking water, house valuable fish species, regulate local climates, and provide scenic landscapes for leisure and tourism. In spite of the crucial role lakes play in supporting human well-being, lakes are one the most extensively and rapidly altered ecosystems in China. Ecosystem services offer a holistic framework to link ecological and economic outcomes to manage the interconnectivity between ecosystems and human welfare. In recent decades, scientists have increasingly recognized the relevance of ecosystem services in policy analysis. In China an important policy tool to finance lake wetland conservation is ecological compensation to incentivize lake wetland protection. The government needs credible measurements and values of ecosystem services to create proper payments and ensure ecosystem service deliveries. However the lack of clarity on intermediate services and final services has led to inconsistent and biased values due to double-counting, which is hindering the application of economic values in decision-making. Ecological production function is fundamental to measuring ecosystem services to  understand the tradeoffs among ecosystem services and the marginal effects of ecosystem
characteristics on final ecosystem services. Currently we lack the data to create ecological production functions to understand how biological mechanisms of lake ecosystems support final ecosystem service flows. In this paper, we first used ecosystem flow mechanisms and beneficiaries analysis to establish the final ecosystem service evaluation index systems for three typical lake wetlands including Baiyangdian lake (semi-humid area), Dongting lake (humid area), and Bosten lake (arid area). We then comprehensively valued the direct use value, indirect use value, and non-use value from the final ecosystem services provided by the three typical lake wetlands using market price method, replacement cost method, travel cost method, and contingent valuation method (pay card). We also valued the dynamic change of ecosystem service values from Baiyangdian lake and its main drivers. Based on our experience, we identify the necessary requirements for lake wetland ecosystem services monitoring, and analyze the principles and perspectives on monitoring indicators selection for lake wetland ecosystem services. We aim to help establish the valuation and management framework for advancing ecosystem services valuation to inform lake wetland conservation. The main conclusions of this paper are:
      (1)For Baiyangdian lake, There exists a complex suite of transition processes among the water bodies, reed lands, and farmland during the time period of 1974-2011, attributing to the influence of water level fluctuation. From 1974 to 2011, the dominance of town and farmland in Baiyangdian increased, while water body and reeds became more fragmented. At the landscape level, the value of patch density, shape index, diversity index, contagion index all suggest the existence of several complex transition processes during the time series (1974-2011).
      (2)The total value of the 8 final ecosystem services provided by Baiyangdian Lake for 2011 was 115.87×108 Yuan RMB, of which the climate regulation service accounted for 69.71% . Based on the valuation result, the 8 final ecosystem services of Baiyangdian were ranked from the greatest to the lowest as: climate regulation, flood control, recreation and tourism, aquatic products, raw material products, biodiversity and landscape resources protection, water resources provision, and carbon sequestration. The total value of the 10 final ecosystem services provided by Dongting Lake for 2010 was 2148.93×108 Yuan RMB, of which climate regulation and flood control services accounted for 91.86%. Based on the valuation result, the 10 final ecosystem services provided by Dongting Lake were ranked from the greatest to the lowest as: flood control, climate regulation, aquatic products, water resources provision, raw material products, biodiversity and landscape resources protection,
carbon sequestration, water purification, recreation and tourism, and water transportation. The total value of the 9 final ecosystem services provided by Bosten Lake for 2012 was 904.04×108 Yuan RMB,of which the climate regulation service accounted for 98.64% . Based on the valuation result, the 9 final ecosystem services provided by Bosten Lake were ranked from the greatest to the lowest as: climate regulation, recreation and tourism, raw material products, carbon sequestration, aquatic products, biodiversity and landscape resources protection, water resources provision, water purification, and flood control. The evaluation result of this paper reflects the vital role that lake wetlands play in sustaining regional development and human well-being. The goal is to establish scientific methods to help managers create ecological compensation mechanisms. The evaluation system will also provide guidance to establish monitoring programs that incorporate ecosystem service
indicators and ecosystem characteristic metrics to clarify the relationship between lake wetlands and human well-being to inform regional sustainable development efforts in China.   
      (3)During the time period of 1980-2007, the ecosystem service values at Baiyangdian Lake experienced a repetitive process of decreasing and increasing cycles. Across the time series, the aquatic products service, recreation and tourism service, biodiversity and landscape resources protection presented significant positive correlations(p<0.01),raw material products and carbon sequestration presented positive correlation(p<0.01), water resources provision and climate regulation presented positive correlation(p<0.01). The correlations among the other ecosystem services were insignificant (p>0.05). Aquatic products service, recreation and tourism service, biodiversity and landscape resources protection showed significant increasing trends, which were attributed to the socio-economic development and population growth(p<0.05). Contrasted to these three ecosystem services, raw material products service and carbon sequestration service showed significant decreasing trends (p<0.05).Water level fluctuation resulted in recurrent fluctuations of the water resources provision service and climate regulation service (p<0.01).
      (4)This paper established the typical lake wetland final ecosystem service indicators based on the following principles ① direct relevance to human activities and management actions, ② strong connection to final ecosystem services, ③ credibly revealed through people’s choices or preferences for economic valuation,④ sufficient incorporation of the existing monitoring indicators, ⑤ feasibility of technical measurement and easy to implement, ⑥available for repetition and scaling, ⑦ expense to evaluate over time. We also constructed the framework for lake wetland ecosystem services valuation and management, which are vital for wetland conservation.

内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34494
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
江波. 典型湖泊湿地生态系统服务评价及管理框架[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2014.
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