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题名: 北京城市绿色空间及其与居民生活区域关联特征分析
作者: 姜天祺
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2015-04
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 董仁才
关键词: 城市绿色空间,北京,兴趣点,核密度,Urban green space, Beijing, POI, Kernel density
其他题名: Analysis on Spatial Characteristics of Green Space with Residents' Living Area in Beijing Urban Area
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:       城市绿色空间与人类活动有着密不可分的相互作用关系,人是城市的主体和城市绿色空间的核心服务对象,人类活动对于绿色空间也有着多方面的影响,因此关注绿色空间与城市居民生活关联关系的研究,对于城市绿色空间发展的理论和实践都尤为重要。现今,随着城市的快速发展,城市居民生活质量不断提升,居民对于绿色空间的需求也不断升高。另一方面,城市绿色空间经常因城市扩张中建设用地的侵占等原因而不断减少,城市绿色空间供需之间的矛盾正在成为阻碍城市发展的重要因素。在空间的角度,如何对绿色空间进行合理布局,使其更好的为人类提供绿色服务,是绿色空间的主要研究方向。北京作为中国的首都,其人口数量、绿色空间发展和城市扩张都具有典型性。同时,随着城市信息化的快速发展,新型数据(如POI数据,LBS数据)的涌现为城市研究带来了更多可能。基于以上背景,论文利用电子导航地图数据,对北京市五环内的绿色空间分布格局进行研究,其中着重研究北京市绿色空间分布与居民生活区域的空间关联特征,旨在对北京市的绿色空间格局产生新的认知,为北京市绿色空间的规划建设提供依据。
      论文首先对城市绿色空间的相关研究以及电子导航地图数据的应用进行综述,后在其基础上,基于北京市城市发展特征,以及绿色空间与城市居民生活区域的空间关联,对北京市的绿色空间分布格局进行分析描述。其中作为创新点的是,研究中通过对电子导航地图数据中兴趣点(POI)数据的核密度分析,表征北京市居民生活区域热度分布,并基于生活区域热度分布,探讨城市居民生活与城市绿色空间的关联关系。此外,研究中还加入了对不同类型绿色空间分布特征的分析探讨。
      研究得出主要结论如下:(1)在北京市五环内,城市居民生活区域热度较高的地区绿色空间覆盖率约为2.3%。北京市五环内的绿色空间分布与居民生活区域热度整体上呈负相关关系。在城市居民生活区域热度越高的地区,绿色空间面积越小。绿色空间覆盖率随着城市居民生活区域热度的升高而降低。(2)北京市五环内有近一半(53%)的绿色空间为可供市民进入并主要提供休闲娱乐功能的开放绿色空间。在分布趋势上,越接近城市中心绿色空间开放程度越高,越接近城市外围绿色空间开放程度越低。在居民生活区域热度不同的地区,绿色空间的开放率较为接近,均为55%左右。(3)电子导航地图数据具有较高的科研应用价值,尤其其中的兴趣点数据。通过对兴趣点数据的核密度分析,可以较好的表征居民生活区域热度在空间上的分布特征。(4)在未来的城市绿色空间规划与建设中,应充分考虑绿色空间分布与城市居民生活区域的关联关系,如优先在居民生活区域热度较高的区域增加绿化面积,提高绿化质量,提升开放绿色空间比例,并在规划中加入更多居民可感知的环境指标。
英文摘要:      Urban green space and citizen activity are closely related. Human beings are the subject of cities and the main service object of urban green space. Therefore, to plan urban green space reasonably, it is important to investigate the relationship between urban green space and citizen activity. Besides, with the rapid development of cities, citizen’s living quality is being better and their request of urban green space is being higher. However, urban green space always decreases under the pressure of urban expansion. The conflict between the increasing need of green space and the decreasing amount of it impedes the development of cities. Beijing as the capital of China, a huge city with twenty million people and a city with rapid expansion, the situation of its urban green space, especially the relationship between urban green space and citizens, is typical in China. By using the data from navigation electronic map, the study investigate the spatial pattern of green space in Beijing urban area and the spatial characteristics between green space and residents’ living area.
      Firstly, the researches related with urban green space are reviewed. Based on the review, the spatial pattern of green space in Beijing fifth ring road was investigated with two different view. One is city development feature, and the other one is the relationship between green space and residents' living area. In the research, the innovative point is characterizing the heat degree distribution of residents' living area by analyzing POI data from navigation electronic map, and investigating the relationship between urban green space and residents' living area based on the heat degree distribution. Besides, the research also investigates the spatial pattern of different kinds of green space.
      Research results are as follows: (1) The area of green space and the heat degree of residents' living area in Beijing fifth ring road have a negative correlation. When the heat degree of residents' living area is higher, the area of green space is smaller. The green space coverage declines when the heat degree of residents' living area rises. (2) About half (53%) area of green space are public and available to residents in Beijing fifth ring road. In the position, the available rate of green space is higher in the center of city and lower in the periphery of urban area. In the living area of different heat degree, the available rate of green space are close, about 55%. (3) Navigation electronic map, especially the POI, is valuable in urban research. The kernel density of POI could characterize the heat degree of residents' living area rightly. (4) As suggestion, in the future, green space planning and construction should adequately consider the relationship of green space and residents' living area, such as giving priority to the high heat degree of living area for setting more green space, enhancing the quality of green space and enhancing neighborhood access and connectivity. Besides, add more appreciable index in green space planning.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34495
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
姜天祺. 北京城市绿色空间及其与居民生活区域关联特征分析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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