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题名: 低温期黄河水源中致嗅原因解析
作者: 李霞
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2015-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 杨敏
关键词: 黄河,嗅味,鱼腥味,感官气相色谱,全二维气相色谱飞行时间质谱,嗅味物质识别,the Yellow River, taste and odor, fishy odor, sensory-GC, GC×GC-TOFMS, identification of odorous compounds
其他题名: Exploration of reasons for the taste and odor problems in the source water derived from the Yellow River during low temperature periods
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要:       近年来,随着水库水源使用越来越普及,藻类爆发导致的嗅味问题受到广泛关注。除了夏秋季高温期蓝藻导致的土霉味问题,冬春季低温期以鱼腥味为主的嗅味问题也成为影响饮用水水质的一个重要问题。至今为止,国内外针对冬春季低温期发生的嗅味问题研究较少,水厂在嗅味应对方面缺乏有效的技术支持。本研究主要针对冬春季节低温期(2013.12-2014.4)黄河水源中的(包括兰州、银川、呼市、郑州、济南、东营)嗅味问题展开调查,明确黄河水源中嗅味问题发生的规律及来源,并针对兰州市黄河水源早春季节突发性嗅味事件中的关键致嗅物质及产生原因进行了解析,为冬春季低温条件下饮用水异嗅味控制提供科学基础。主要的研究内容及总结如下:
      (1)嗅味特征以及特征嗅味物质调查结果表明,冬春季低温条件下黄河水源中嗅味类型以土霉味、腐败味、鱼腥味为主,检出率分别为89.1%、49.1%、49.1%。其中,MIB、geosmin是导致原水中土霉味的主要物质;Disulfide, dimethyl以及Bis(2-chloroisopropyl) ether可能是部分城市水源中导致腐败味的主要物质;而包括Hexanal、Heptanal、Nonanal、Decanal、β-Cyclocitral、Benzaldehyde在内的六种醛类物质的检出,对于该流域水源的鱼腥味问题有一定的贡献。采用感官气相色谱与全二维气相色谱-飞行时间质谱相结合的方法对未知致嗅物质进行了进一步筛查,主要包括导致巧克力味/烘烤味/焦味的吡嗪类物质;导致腐败味/粪臭味的Acetamide,2,5-hexanedione;导致鱼腥味的Methacrolein,6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one,2-heptanone;导致化学药剂味的2,1,3-benzothiadiazole等。
      (2)黄河水源中鱼腥味问题解析结果表明,黄河水源中鱼腥味是由于多种藻类的共同生长引起的。其中兰州少量的星杆藻的生长(几百cells/mL)并不足以导致鱼腥味问题;锥囊藻的大量生长是导银川严重鱼腥味的原因,另外隐藻、针杆藻、星杆藻也对鱼腥味有一定贡献;呼市鱼腥味则主要与直链藻和小环藻的生长有关;郑州与直链藻、小环藻、隐藻的生长有关;济南与锥囊藻、针杆藻有关;东营则主要与针杆藻有关。隐藻产嗅机制研究结果进一步表明,鱼腥味问题发生在藻细胞裂解阶段,释放的主要嗅味物质包括醛类(2-Butenal, 3-methyl-、2-Butenal, 2-methyl-、2-Butenal、β-cyclocitral)、硫醚类(Disulfide, dimethyl、Disulfide, trimethyl)、酮类(Acetophenone、Ionone)以及其它一些醇类、酯类、杂环类物质等。
      (3)针对2015年3月份兰州市水源突发性嗅味事件进行了解析。调查结果表明,该城市水源上游支流水质较差,氨氮浓度达到1.0mg/L,且存在着严重的腐臭味/淤泥臭味问题,可能存在短暂的排污情况,污水团随水流进入干流引起饮用水异臭味问题。检出的主要致嗅物质包括导致腐败味/腥臭味的硫醚、导致药味的酚类、导致粪臭味的吲哚类物质,以及一种典型的土霉味物质geosmin。
英文摘要:       In recent years, taste and odor problems, especially earthy/musty odors that occur during summer/early fall times, caused by algal blooms have been studied extensively. However, odor problems that occur during winter/early spring times have also been a recurring problem for many water utilities and comsumers. But these kinds of problems are not well studied. This thesis invesgiated reasons and odor causing compounds for the taste and odor problems of source water derived from the Yellow River during low temperature periods. The results will provide foundmental knowledge for the management of odor problems. The main research agenda and results are summarized as follows:
      (1) According to the invesgiation of odor characteristics and typical odorous compounds in the source water derived from the Yellow River, the odor was characterized as earthy/musty, septic and fishy, with detection rates of 89.1%, 49.1% and 49.1%. MIB, geosmin were the main earthy/musty odor causing compounds; DMDS and bis (2-chloroisopropyl) ether for septic/swampy odors in some sites; and aldehydes, including hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, β-cyclocitral, benzaldehyde detected in this study contributed to the overall fishy odor. Combined sensory-GC and GC×GC-TOFMS, more odorous compounds were detected, including aldehydes and ketones for fishy/oily/fatty odor; pyrazines for chocolate/baked/nutty odor; aetamide and 2,5-hexanedione for rancid/putrid/swampy odor; 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole for chemical/solvent odor.
      (2) The reasons of fishy odor problems in the Yellow River source water were speculated to be caused by co-existence of algal taxa. Low density of Asterionella In Lanzhou was not enough to cause fishy odor. The strong fishy odor in Yinchuan was caused by Dinobryon, other algal taxa such as Cryptomonas, Synedra, and Asterionella had also contributed. For other sites, Melosira and Cyclotella contributed to the fishy odors in Hohhot; Cryptomonas, Melosira and Cyclotella to Zhengzhou; Dinobryon and Synedra to Jinan and Synedra to Dongying. The simulation of fishy odor inducing algae-Cryptomonas showed that the fishy odor was caused by a large amount of odor causing compounds emitted during their cells decay. And the key odorants were idendified as aldehydes (2-butenal, 3-methyl-, 2-butenal, 2-methyl-, 2-butenal, β-cyclocitral)、sulfides (disulfide, dimethyl, disulfide, trimethyl) and ketones (acetophenone、ionone).
      (3) A survey was conducted to reveal reasons for the odor eposide occurred in early spring in the source water of Lanzhou city. The results showed that the water quality of upstream tributary was poor with the concentration of NH3-N above 1 mg/L, and with odor characterised as moderate to strong swampy/rancid/sludged. Sulfides, phenols, indoles and geosmin were detected as key odor causing compounds.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34497
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
李霞. 低温期黄河水源中致嗅原因解析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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