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题名: 基于多源数据集成系统和综合指标体系的城市可持续性监测平台
作者: 李宇亮
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2015-04
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 邓红兵
关键词: 城市 ; 可持续发展 ; 可持续性 ; WebGIS ; 复合生态系统,City ; Sustainable development ; Sustainability ; WebGIS ; Compround ecosystem
其他题名: An Urban Sustainability Monitoring Platform base on Urban Muti-source Data Integrated System and Comprehensive Index System
中文摘要:    
      改革开放以来,中国进入了城市高速发展期,快速的城市化造成了城市人口高度聚集,资源消耗量剧增,城市环境质量和生活质量不断下降。因此,在快速城市化背景下,推行城市可持续发展模式,有效地监测并正确认识城市可持续性,对提高城市管理水平,实现城市复合生态系统健康协调发展具有重要的现实意义和理论价值。
      本文首先介绍了城市可持续性的相关概念内涵和关键构成要素,将城市可持续性理论作为构建城市发展状况监测平台的理论依据。其次,分类回顾了常见的城市可持续性评价方法,全面地总结了城市可持续性评价中常用的数据类型以及每类数据的特点,收集各类数据,以WebGIS系统为平台,建设大容量、规范化,集数据存储、查询、分析、在线调查等多功能为一体的城市多源数据集成系统(Urban Muti-source Data Integrated System,UMDIS);然后,构建一种基于综合指标体系,具有多环节多群体公众参与特点的城市可持续性评价模型,并将其与城市多源数据集成系统相结合,形成城市可持续性监测平台。最后,利用城市可持续性监测平台,对2012年全国地级以上城市的可持续性进行分类监测,同时,对各类城市经济子系统、社会子系统和环境子系统的发展状况进行深度剖析,发掘城市发展状况的空间分布规律。以上一系列工作旨在探索性地建立一套适用于中国国情的城市可持续性监测平台,为城市规划管理提供一定的参考依据。通过本文的研究,主要得出以下结论:
      1.城市可持续性的实质是一系列城市所必须具备的条件,是一种理想化的城市状态,也是大多数城市的发展目标。从城市可持续性的关键构成要素来看,城市的可持续性包括其内部经济子系统、社会子系统和环境子系统的可持续性,同时也包括这3个子系统相互之间的协调性,此外,城市的可持续性还包括了城市与外部环境之间的联系。
      2. 目前常见的城市可持续性评价方法可以分为承载力评价、城市代谢分析、福利核算以及综合指标体系4类,每类方法都具有各自的优缺点。此外,过去的研究案例表明,将来的城市可持续性评价应该进一步明确城市边界,关注城市的初始禀赋以及城市与外部环境的联系,同时还要拓展评价数据来源,全面考察城市居民的主观感受。
      3. 在城市可持续性评价中常用的数据主要包括空间数据和非空间数据两大类,空间数据可以分为矢量数据与栅格数据;而非空间数据主要包括城市社会经济数据和调查问卷数据。本研究以WebGIS系统为核心,集成城市空间数据与非空间数据,形成城市多源数据集成系统,并在系统内实现数据的存储、查询、展示和分析。系统开发的过程中,利用B/S(Brower/Sever)三层体系结构组合各个系统模块,并在三层体系结构的中间层将数据逻辑与业务逻辑分离,这样的设计方案使得系统运行效率大大提高。此外,数据集成系统中的的公众参与渠道能通过网络调查问卷的形式,让相关专家学者、政府管理人员、普通居民等群体参与城市可持续性评价。
      4. 由具体评价指标先合成经济活力指数、社会民生指数、以及环境资源指数,然后再利用这些指数进一步描述城市可持续性,这样能保证综合指标体系内,具体评价指标与最终的评价目标之间具有清晰的逻辑层级结构。另一方面,这种多指数合成的评价模型能对城市各个子系统进行详细地剖析,并实现子系统发展状况的时空二维比较,使得研究人员和城市管理者能更为具体地监测城市发展状况,总结城市发展规律。此外,在综合指标体系中引入了多个公众参与环节,分别邀请不同的公众群体参与决策,这有效提高了城市可持续性评价的科学性、客观性和民主性。
      5. 最后,利用多源数据集成系统和城市可持续性评价模型所构成的城市可持续性监测平台,对2012年中国地级以上城市的可持续性进行分类监测。监测实例证明,在高速城市化背景下,城市可持续性理论能为城市发展状况监测平台的建立提供清晰的理论框架。同时,将城市多源数据集成系统与具有多环节、多群体公众参与特点的城市可持续性评价模型相结合,通过这种软硬件结合的方式能形成一种高效、科学的城市可持续性监测平台。
英文摘要:       At the beginning of the 21st century, Chinese cities have entered a period of high-speed development. Rapid urbanization cause massive amount of population massed in the urban area, comsumes lots of resource, and makes the quality of life and environment declined over the last decade. Previous experience showed that, implementing the sustainable development strategy, coupled with monitoring the situation of cities can improve the urban administrating and maintain a healthy urban compound ecosystem. Hence, under the fast urbanization circumstance, a Urban Sustainability Monitoring Platform are essential to Chinese cities.
      In this thesis, the author firstly reviewed the theoretical background of sustainable development and sustainability,summarized the concept connotation,key components and evaluation methodologies of urban sustainability. Then, introduced all of the data for urban sustainability evaluation, collected these data and assembled them in the Urban Muti-source Data Integrated System (UMDIS) which was developed based on WebGIS system and has functions of data storage, analysis and online survey. Meanwhile, a Multi-section and Multi-group Public Participation Index System (MMPPIS) was developed to evaluate the urban sustainability. Based on the UMDIS and MMPPIS, the sustainability of the municipalities, sub-provincial cities and prefecture-level cites in mainland China, 2012, was evaluated; the situation of economic, social and environmental subsystem in some cities were analyzed in detail; the spatial distribution of urban attribution was explored. The studies mentioned above aimed at establishing a Urban Sustainability Monitoring Platform (USMP)for Chinese cities, and thus providing the reference for urban planning and management. The major conclusions in this thesis are as following:
      1. Urban sustainability is a series attribution which essential to a city, is an optimized situation of a city, and also the development goals for most of the cities. According the key components, urban sustainability contains the sustainability of economic, social and environmental subsystem inside a city, the harmony between these three subsystems, and the relationship between a city and its external environment.
      2. The conventional method for urban sustainability evaluation can be classified into 4 categories: Carrying Capacity Evaluation, Urban Metabolism Analysis, Welfare Accounting and Comprehensive Index System, each category of method has its advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, the past evaluations on urban sustainability suggest that, the researcher should pay more attention on the city boundary and the city initial endowment, should investigate the relationship between city and external environment, and should repflect the subjective experience of urban residents. Meanwhile, multi-resource data should be used in urban sustainability evaluation.
      3. The traditional data used in urban sustainability evaluation includes spatial data and non-spatial data. Spatial data can be divided into vector data and raster data, and non-spatial data mainly includes urban social economic data and questionnaire survey data. These data were collected and assembled in the UMDIS which was developed base on WebGIS system and has functions of data storage, inquiry, display, download, analysis and Online survey. When constructing the UMDIS, we used the B/S(Brower/Sever) three-tier structure as a framework to assemble systematic components, and segregated the business logic and data logic in the mid-tier system, such a method can makes the UMDIS more efficient. Farther more, a section for network questionnaire survey was added in the UMDIS to invite various population to participate into the Urban Sustainability evaluation.
      4. The MMPPIS contains 4 indices, Economic Vitality Index, Livelihood Index, Environmental Resource Index, and Sustainability Index. Economic Vitality Index, Livelihood Index and Environmental Resource Index were compose
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34499
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
李宇亮. 基于多源数据集成系统和综合指标体系的城市可持续性监测平台[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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