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题名: 复合式生物反应器处理含二氧化硫废气的研究
作者: 林坚
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2015-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 李琳
关键词: 复合式生物反应器 ; 二氧化硫 ; 脱硫菌 ; 微生物群落结构 ; 示范工程,integrated-bioreactor ; sulfur dioxide ; desulfurization bacteria ; microbiology population structure ; demonstration project
其他题名: The treatment of waste gaese containing sulfur dioxide by an integrated-bioreactor
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要:       燃煤燃烧、金属冶炼、烟气制酸等过程排放大量含二氧化硫(SO2)的废气,危害生态环境和人体健康。与传统的物理化学方法相比,生物法处理废气具有投资 少、能耗低、工艺简单、无二次污染等优点。本研究针对SO2的特性,研发了复合式生物反应器。该反应器的内部设置有两个生物反应区,即:悬浮式生物反应区 (SZ)和固定式生物反应区(IZ)。研究了该复合式反应器去除SO2效果、影响因素及微生物特征。
      将脱硫菌接种到复合式生物反应器持续通入含SO2的废气,定期采样监测复合式生物反应器的运行效果。反应器连续运行242天,稳定运行阶段平均进气浓度 95.0mg/m3,出气浓度11.0mg/m3,去除率88.5%,最大去除能力4.4gm3/h。不同运行方式的对比试验结果显示:SZ反应区的去除 率明显高于IZ反应区,大部分的SO2是在SZ反应区去除的。SZ反应区和IZ反应区的共同作用,可以使SO2的总去除率超过88.5%。
      进气负荷、温度以及填料中的含水率等因素影响SO2的去除效果。去除率随进气负荷的增加逐渐减小。当反应器的温度从10℃升至30℃,SZ反应区对SO2 去除率从42.6%提高到59.1%,IZ反应区SO2去除率从19.7%提高到39.1%。反应器外设的保温层以及风机加热作用可以使反应器内的温度维 持在10℃-30℃。IZ反应区填料的含水率对SO2的去除影响显著。SZ反应区的水层对气体有加湿作用。SZ反应区不仅能够去除大部分的SO2,而且有 助于保持IZ反应区填料的湿度。
      运用克隆文库以及聚合酶链反应-变性梯度凝胶电泳(PCR-DGGE)分析了各个反应区的微生物群落结构。结果显示:在SZ反应区,细菌、硫细菌总数以及 硫细菌比率随复合式生物反应器运行时间的延长逐渐增加。反应器稳定运行时,细菌的数量及硫细菌比例也保持稳定。SZ反应区内的优势菌为类芽孢杆菌属、罗尔 斯通菌属、芽孢杆菌属。在IZ反应区内,细菌、硫细菌总数以及硫细菌比率出现与SZ反应区类似的变化,但硫细菌数量及比率略低。IZ反应区内的优势菌为类 芽孢杆菌属、鞘氨醇杆菌属、金黄杆菌属。类芽孢杆菌在两个反应区均为优势脱硫菌,SZ反应区还存在罗尔斯通菌和芽孢杆菌两种脱硫菌。由于底物浓度、环境条 件不同,两个反应区形成的微生物群结构有差异。通过两个反应区脱硫菌的共同作用,复合式反应器可以有效去除废气中的SO2。
      示范工程运行结果显示,复合式生物反应器能够有效去除污泥干化尾气中的主要成分SO2,并且在三个月内运行稳定。
英文摘要:       Waste gases containing sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted from fossil fuels burning or metal smelting processes will endanger the ecological environment and human health. Compared with the traditional physicochemical method, biotechniques have advantadges such as less investment, low energy consumption, simple process, no secondary pollution in the treatment of off-gases. According to the properties of SO2, an integrated-bioreactor consisting of suspended zone (SZ) and immobilized zone (IZ) was setted up for SO2 removal. The performance, factors and the microbial characteristics of the integrated-bioreactor were investigated.
      Waste gas containing SO2 was pumped continually to the integrated-bioreactor inoculated desulfurization bacteria mixure. The bioreactor was operated for 242 days and its performance was monitored periodically. During the steady state, the average concentrations of SO2 in inlet and outlet were 95.0mg/m3 and 11.0mg/m3, respectively. 88.5% of removal efficiency and 4.38gm3/h of the maximum elimination capacity could be obtained. SZ had larger removal efficiency than IZ and most of the SO2 was removed in SZ. The total removal efficiency of SO2 was over 88.45% by the combined action of SZ and IZ.        
       The performance of the integrated-bioreactor was affected by factors such as inlet load, temperature and the water containing rate of packing material. The removal efficiency of SO2 decreased with the increasing of inlet load, while it increased as the temperature raised from 10℃ to 30℃. The temperature of the bioreactor was maintained between 10℃ and 30℃ by the heat preservation of the out insulation layer and the heating action of the fan. The removal efficiency of SO2 in IZ was significantly relied on the water containing rate of packing material. The gases could be humidied when they passing through the SZ. The SZ not only could remove most SO2 in gases but also be helpful to maintain the water containing rate of packing material packed in IZ.
      The microbial community in the individual zones were analyzed by clone library and Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) methods. Results showed that the total number of bacteria, sulfur bacteria, and sulfur bacteria ratio increased gradually with the extension of integrated-bioreactor operation time in SZ. The number of bacteria and sulfur bacteria proportion remained stable during the steady operation period. The domiant bacteria in SZ were Paenibacillus sp., Ralstonia sp. and bacillus sp.. Similar phenomenon occurred in IZ. Merely, the total number of bacteria and sulfur bacteria in IZ was smaller than those in SZ. The domiant bacteria in IZ were Paenibacillus sp., Sphingobacterium sp. and Chryseobacterium sp.. Paenibacillus sp. was dominant in both reaction zones. Two desulfurization bacteria, Ralstonia sp. and bacillus sp. also presented In SZ., the microbial communities in individual zones were quite different due to the specific environment and different substrate concentration. SO2 can be removed effectively by the desulphurization bacteria formed in each reaction zone.
      A pilot-scale integrated-bioreactor had been operated for 3 months for treating sludge drying exhaust gases. The main ingredient in the off-gases was SO2. Results showed that the SO2 can be effectively removed by the integrated-bioreactor.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34502
Appears in Collections:水污染控制技术研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
林坚. 复合式生物反应器处理含二氧化硫废气的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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