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题名: 东北森林带生态系统格局、质量、服务功能和胁迫十年变化研究(2000-2010)
作者: 孙滨峰
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2015-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 王效科
关键词: 生态系统格局, 生态系统格局, 生态 服务功能, 生态 系统质量, 干扰生态 区划, pattern of ecosystems, ecosystem services, quality of ecosystems, disturbance, ecological regionalization
其他题名: Reaserch of Ecosystems pattern, quality, services and disturbances in Northeastern Forest Regions of China (2000-2010)
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:       本文以遥感影像为主要数据源,在生态系统分类和生态参数提取的基础上,结合气象、土壤、水文、环境等监测数据,以及社会经济统计数据,通过实地调查与模型 模拟,定量评估了我国“两屏三带”中的东北森林带的生态系统格局、质量、服务功能、生态环境问题、生态胁迫特征,并分析其变化趋势及其主要驱动因素。通过 分析研究区域生态环境特征、生态环境问题、生态环境敏感性和生态服务功能空间分异规律,将区域空间划分为94个生态功能区,为东北森林带生态环境保护政策 和措施的制定提供了科学依据。主要研究结论如下。       
       (1)东北森林带生态系统的结构稳定、变化缓慢,景观破碎化程度低且持续减弱,生态环境条件趋于规则简单的正向发展。东北森林带的主体生态系统是森林生态 系统,其空间分布连片、景观结构相对单一,格局稳定少动。2000-2010年间林地逐渐规则、简单,优势度略微下降,景观完整性增强。自然生态系统主要 转换为人工生态系统,湿地与耕地间的相互转化也说明在区域生态管理中需要进一步制定湿地保护规划,减少对湿地生态系统的破坏。           
      (2)从生态系统服务功能的角度,我们定义生态系统质量为:生态系统为人类提供服务功能的内在本质特性,以及这些特性可以发挥作用的能力及优劣程度。并采 用基于NPP和相对生物量指数的方法评估了东北森林带生态系统质量。结果显示,2000-2010年间,东北森林带生态系统质量无显著性变化。受降水的影 响,年NPP表现为东南高、西部低的特点。基于相对生物量指数的评价结果显示,东北森林带森林生态系统整体上以中等质量为主。气候变化在一定程度上促进了 森林生态系统质量的提高。
      (3)2000-2010年间,东北森林带的服务功能无显著的变化。土壤保持功能微弱下降,受降雨的影响,土壤保持较高区域主要分布在张广才岭、长白山等 地。生物多样性保护功能微弱下降,森林生态系统的固碳功能受太阳总辐射和降水的影响略微增加。生态服务功能与气候变化、经济发展和城市建设显著相关。降 水、太阳总辐射和温度分别解释了服务功能52%、30.1%和17.3%的变化趋势。建设用地和第一产业与生态服务功能呈负相关,分别解释了22.90% 和8.5%的变化趋势。
         (4)东北森林带自然干扰下降,社会活动胁迫持续增加。2000-2010年间,东北森林带自然胁迫呈现下降趋势,高胁迫区域逐渐减少。干旱发生范围广 泛,影响严重。大兴安岭东南和小兴安岭西南是自然胁迫比较严重的地方。2000-2010年间,人口数有小幅度的增加,GDP持续增长,城市建设和矿产开 发规模较小,开发强度有所增加,森林采伐量基本呈现出先增加后减少的趋势。
      (5)本研究将东北森林带划分为4个生态区、16个生态亚区和94个生态功能区,并以区域尺度上占主导地位的服务:水源涵养、水土保持、防风固沙等为依 据,分析了不同生态功能区的生态特征,存在问题以及解决方法。区划结果对研究区域生态管理有一定的指导意义,为研究区生态保护和自然资源的有序开发利用以 及产业的合理布局,区域生态系统服务提供和保护提供了科学依据,对东北森林带生态安全具有重要的意义。
       总之,东北森林带作为我国重要的生态保障和木材生产基地,土地利用以森林为主,植被覆盖度高,生产力水平高,水源涵养和生物多样性保护功能重要,自然胁迫 和人类开发强度中等程度。2000-2010年间,生态环境变化表现在:(1)天然林减少、耕地增加;(2)生态系统质量无显著性变化;(3)水源涵养和 生物多样性略有增加;(4)自然胁迫和人为胁迫略有增加。在此基础上,结合生态环境特征、环境胁迫、生态环境敏感性和生态服务功能空间分异规律,研究功能 区划,并为东北森林带生态管理提供管理对策。
英文摘要:       This study takes remote sensing image as the primary data source, based on the classification of ecological system and ecological parameter extraction, combination of meteorology, soil, hydrology, environment etc. and socioeconomic statistics data, with field investigation and model, quantitatively assess the impacts of ecosystem patterns, quality, service function, ecological environment, ecological stress characteristics, regional ecological quality, and defense in northeast forest zone on the regional ecological environment and control ability, and analysis the variation trend and the main driving factors. This study provide the sound scientific evidence for the policy-making of ecological environment protect in northeast forest zone. The results as follows.
      (1)In NFR, the structure of ecosystems were stable and changing slowly, with a low degree of landscape fragmentation which keeping on decreasing. The environment was becoming simple and positive. Forests dominated most parts of area in NFR, and distributed contiguous. The structure of forests was relatively simple and stable. During 2000-2010, forests gradually became simple with the decline of dominance and enhance of integrity in the landscape. Forests were mainly converted to croplands .And the transformation of wetland and croplands indicated that a further protect planning should be performed to protect wetlands, and to reduce the destruction of wetland ecosystems.
         (2)From the perspective of ecosystem service function, we define ecosystem quality as: the inherent characteristics of ecosystem provide human for the service function, and these characteristics exhibit the ability and extent. Based on the NPP method and the relative biomass index, we evaluated the ecosystem quality of NFR. The results show that, during the periods of 2000-2010, NFR ecosystem quality had no significant change. Due to the difference of rainfall, annual NPP was higher in southeast, and lower in western in NFR. Based on the evaluation of relative biomass index, the results showed that, overall, forest ecological system in NFR had a medium quality. To some extent, climate change promoted the forest ecosystem quality.
        (3) From 2000 to 2010, the service function of NFR had no significant change. Affected by rainfall, soil conservation function decreased slightly, greater soil conservation areas are mainly distributed in Zhangguangcai mountains and Changbai Mountains. Biodiversity protection function declined slightly, while the carbon sequestration function in forest ecosystem was increased by total solar radiation and precipitation. Ecological service function had a significant correlation with climate change, economic development and urban construction. Precipitation, solar total radiation and temperature explained the change of service function 52%, 30.1% and 17.3%, respectively. The construction land and the first industry was negatively correlated with ecological service function, explained the change of 22.90% and 8.5%, respectively.
         (4) The intensity of natural stressor was decreased, while social stressor continuous increased. During 2000-2010, the natural stressor gradually decreased, droughts was the majority natural stressor, with wide and seriously affected. The serious natural stressor occurred in the southeast of greater Khingan and southwest of lesser Khingan. Between the periods of 2000 and 2010, the population increased slightly, GDP continuously raised, urban construction and mineral development area subtle decreased, however, development intensity increased, the amount of deforestation showed an increasing and then decreasing trend.
         (5) This study divided northeast forest zone into 4 ecological regions, 16 ecological subregions, and 94 ecological function regions. We take water conservation, soil and water conservation, wind-break and sand-fixation etc. as basis, analysis the ecological characteristics, existing problems, and solving methods in different ecological function regions. Ecological environment protection in NFR should base on the forest conservation, reduced forest harvesting, controlled arable areas and mineral resources exploitation, protected biodiversity conservation, increased ecosystem services, and improved ecological barrier function of NFR.
       In brief, as an important ecological barrier and wood production base, land use of northeast forest zone is primary forest, vegetation coverage and level of productivity are high, simultaneously, water conservation and biodiversity conservation function are very important, and the strength of natural stress and artificial exploitation is at a medium level. In the periods from 2000 to 2010, ecological environment change performed that: (1) natural forest reduced, and arable land increased; (2) vegetation coverage and production had no change; (3) water conservation and biodiversity slightly increased; (4) natural and artificial stress slightly increased. On this basis, combined with the spatial distribution regulation of ecological characteristics, environmental stressor, environmental sensitivity and ecological service function, we regionalized ecosystem services, and provided management strategies for the NEF management.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34509
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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孙滨峰. 东北森林带生态系统格局、质量、服务功能和胁迫十年变化研究(2000-2010)[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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