中国科学院生态环境研究中心机构知识库
Advanced  
RCEES OpenIR  > 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室  > 学位论文
题名: 祁连山区小流域生态系统水文调节服务研究
作者: 孙飞翔
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2014-10
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 傅伯杰 ; 吕一河
其他题名: Research of water regulation by ecosystems in small watershed of the Qilian Mountains
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:       随着生态系统服务研究的兴起,作为其主要组成之一的生态系统的水文服务成为生态水文学研究的热点。生态系统的水文服务不同于其他服务,并非仅仅作为生态系 统的一项产品输出,而更大的意义蕴含在生态系统的水文过程之中,尤其在河流上游山地生态系统中,诸多服务体现在这个过程中。水文循环的生物圈部分 (BAHC)和国际教科文组织主持的国际水文计划(UNESCO/IHP2.3~2.4)等国际项目的实施,以及生物多样性和生态系统服务政府间科学-政 策平台(IPBES)的建立,使得生态系统水文服务研究得到迅速的发展和广泛的重视,尤其在在气候变化和水资源短缺的大背景下,对于干旱、半干旱内陆河流 域上游山地生态系统,水文调节服务是关系到生态系统自身功能完整性和中下游地区经济社会可持续发展的关键。大气降水进入到生态系统,则被调节为“绿水”维 持自身生命和物质能量循环和“蓝水”以径流的形式汇入河川供人类生活、生产所利用,而“蓝水”、“绿水”的比例则是通过生态系统的水文调节来实现和维持 的。本论文研究立足祁连山典型山地景观,探讨不同生态系统的水文调节服务差异以及在小流域上的表现特征。通过在不同尺度上的研究,我们发现:
      1. 土壤水是祁连山区山地生态系统水文调节服务实现的一个关键环节,一方面为植被生长提供持续稳定的水分来源,一方面通过土壤含水率的变化调节降水-径流的水 文时空分布。土壤的容重、孔隙度、有机质含量、粒径组成等均会对土壤水分的动态特征产生影响,表现在对降雨事件响应的敏感度和时间尺度特征等方面。根据统 计结果,土壤物理性质在植被覆盖类型间存在显著差异,高海拔灌丛地容重小,孔隙度高,有机质、砂粒含量高,降水事件发生之后土壤水分响应速度快,纵向传导 也较为迅速;青海云杉林地因冠层截留作用,土壤水分在降雨事件之后反应较慢,但土壤容重小、孔隙度高、砂粒含量较高,故而土壤水分开始上升之后纵向传导较 为迅速;草地土壤容重较大、孔隙度低,在降雨事件发生之后虽然表层反应较快,但纵向传导慢。从土壤水分的动态曲线来看,高海拔灌丛林地土壤水分对降雨事件 的典型响应时间尺度为次降雨事件,而青海云杉林地和草地为连续降雨期,深层草地土壤水分更是存在几个连续降雨期持续上升的现象。
      2. 通过土壤水分累积值的计算和比较以及水库控制区青海云杉林地对小流域生态系统的水文调节能力最强,其表现为在低海拔区域对“绿水”量的正效应和“蓝水”量 的负效应,为主要的耗水区。高海拔灌丛林地整个雨季保持较高的土壤含水率且对降雨事件响应最为敏感,因此其土壤含水率累积值最高,同时因为土层薄以及典型 的土石混合结构,更有利于水分入渗形成地下水,从而有着最有效的大气降水-土壤水-地下水传输效率,为小流域最重要的产水区。
      3. 山地生态系统水文调节服务的主体为植被-土壤复合体。雨季的降雨是不连续的,但经过生态系统水文调节之后形成的径流却是连续的、相对稳定的,植被对于水文 调节的意义就在于调节了径流的时间和空间分布。通过对研究区大野口流域2002-2011年间降雨/径流的统计分析发现,在次降雨和连续降雨期尺度上,水 文调节主要体现在样地尺度的降水-植被-土壤水的响应关系;上升到流域尺度则为影响大气降水-径流的关系。通过降雨/径流比值在月尺度的相关分析体现出: 植被在生长季对流域径流量存在显著影响,却并没有因为植被的调节作用而影响到小流域大气降水-径流产流变化的总体格局。
      4. 流域内水库控制区2002-2011年10年间年平均“绿水”比例为50.3%,“蓝水”比例为49.7%,高于全球35%的平均水平;但期间“蓝水”的 比例以平均每年1.76%的速度下降。2002-2011年10年间降水总量在波动中上升,控制区叶面积指数(LAI)、净初级生产力(NPP)和植被覆 盖度指数(VFC)2002-2010年9年间线性回归统计呈现出上升趋势。植被指数的提高与“蓝水”的减少和“绿水”的增加有一定的关联性。
      5. 净初级生产力(NPP)的空间分布特征发现,海拔3500m以下植被带为小流域水文调节服务的主体,其中常绿针叶林的9年NPP总量占到了研究区的 39.0%,落叶灌木占到24.8%,草甸占到23.4%。对山地生态系统云杉、圆柏、灌丛、草地生态系统的保护和管理是山地生态系统服务研究的重要延 伸,切实关系到相关地区的生态与社会经济协调发展。 6. 在出山径流量减小的趋势下,中、下游地区在农业生产上应该及时作出调整应对,避免出现上、下游在生态保护和生产需水上出现尖锐的矛盾。传统的农、牧业需要 及时做出转型,优势牧业和生态农业亟需推广,农业生产节水措施有待落实,区域产业结构调整应把发展生态第三产业作为主要方向之一。对祁连山区生态系统水文 服务的评价应综合考虑上游生态维持与中、下游农、牧业以及整个祁连山地区经济社会发展的协调,应客观认识上游山地生态系统“绿水”贮存与中下游“蓝水”需 求之间的矛盾关系。
英文摘要:        Hydrological service by ecosystems has become a hot issue of Eco-hydrology researches as a main component of the ecosystem service. The greatest significance is carried on the hydrological processes of ecosystems, but not only a product output of ecosystems, especially in the upstream mountain ecosystems of inland river basins. Much more ecosystem services are related or reflected in the hydrological processes. The implementation of international projects such as Biospheric Aspects of Hydrological Cycle (BAHC), and the International Hydrological Program (IHP) organized by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), and the found of Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) has given a widespread attention and rapid development to researches on hydrological services by ecosystems. In the background of climate change and water shortage, water regulation service is a key factor related to the integrity of ecosystems and influencing the sustainable economic and social development of middle and lower reaches in the arid and semi-arid inland river basins. On global scale, the precipitation is divided into ‘blue water’ and ‘green water’ by ecosystems. ‘Green water’ occupies 65% and sustains the lives of ecosystems and maintains the physical energy cycle, while ‘blue water’ occupies 35% and imported in the form of runoff/rivers, used in human life and production. The ratio of ‘green water’ and ‘blue water’ is adjusted by the water regulation service of ecosystems. This research conducts on typical landscapes of Qilian Mountains, explore the differences of water regulation service between several ecosystems and the performances in small watershed. Through the study on different scales we find that:
      1. Soil water is a key factor affecting the water regulation service in mountain ecosystems. In one hand, soil water supplies for the survival of vegetation and in the other hand it regulates the rainfall-runoff spatial and temporal distribution. The dynamic characteristics of soil moisture could be influenced by soil bulk density, soil porosity, organic content, particle composition, and presents on the responding sensitivity and time scale. According to the statistic results, the difference of soil characteristics is significant between land-cover types. The soil of shrubland at high altitude is of low soil bulk density, high porosity, high sand content, thus responding fastest and infiltrating fastest of all the land-cover types; due to the canopy interception, the soil moisture of Qinghai spruce forestland responding slowly but once increasing, the infiltrating speed is fast as low bulk density, high porosity and high sand content in the soil; without canopy, soil moisture in the surface layers of grassland could increase fast responding to rainfall event, but as its high bulk density, low porosity, the infiltrating speed to deep layers is slow. By the dynamic curves of soil moisture, the responding time scale of shrubland at high altitude is single rainfall event, while in the grassland and Qinghai spruce forestland is continuous-rainfall-period scale. Soil moisture of grassland at deep layers was almost keeps rising across the whole rainy season.
      2. Through the calculation and comparison of the soil moisture accumulated value, Qinghai spruce forestland is of the greatest regulating ability in the study area, presents on the positive effect on the ‘green water’ and negative effect on the ‘blue water’. Shrubland at high altitude responses the fastest to rainfall events and has the highest soil moisture accumulated value, coupled with the soil-stone structure and highest rainfall quantity, it becomes the most important runoff supply area.
      3. Vegetation-soil composite is the principal body supplying the water regulation service. Precipitation is discontinuous but the runoff is continuous and stable with the regulation of ecosystems. On the time  scale of single  rainfall and continuous rainfall period, the regulation is mainly presents on the response of precipitation-vegetation-soil  water in  plot  scale,  and  precipitation-runoff change  in catchment    scale.   The    statistic    and    correlation    analysis   of    monthly    scale precipitation/runoff value reflects  the reducing effect  on surface runoff by  vegetation during the rainy season,  but the growth of vegetation will not  significantly reduce the runoff and  change  the overall  trend on  month  scale within  a year  according  to the  Pearson correlation  of precipitation-runoff  of 2002-2010. The  interannual variability could  reflect  the  runoff-reducing  effect  of   vegetation  in  small  watershed  by  the statistic and trend analysis of vegetation index and ‘green water’/‘blue water’ ratio.
      4. In the  dam-controlled area, the  ‘green water’ ratio is  50.3% from the statistic between the year 2002-2011, and the ‘blue  water’ ratio is 49.7%, which is higher than the  global level,  but  with  a decreasing  trend  of  1.76% per  year.  The  precipitation between 2002-2011shows  an increasing  trend with  fluctuation,  while the  vegetation index between  2002-2010 presents  an increasing trend,  which is  associated with the decreasing trend of ‘blue water’.
      5.  The spatial  distribution  of NPP  of the  dam-controlled  area reflects  that  the vegetation belt  below 3500 m is  the main body  of water regulation  service provider. The  total NPP  between  2002-2010 of  evergreen  coniferous forest  occupies  39.0%, while  the deciduous  shrub  occupies  24.8%  and the  meadow  occupies  23.4%. The protection and  management to mountain ecosystems  of Qinghai spruce  forest, Qilian juniper  forest,  grassland  and  shrubland is  an  important  extending,  which  is  close related to the agricultural and economic development near the mountains.
      6. Under the background of runoff decreasing,  the agricultural production should be  adjusted to  avoid  the emergence  contradictions between  production  demands in downstream  regions  and  ecological protections  in  upstream  mountain  ecosystems. Traditional   agricultural   and   husbandry   requires   timely  adjustments,   advantage husbandry and ecological agricultural need to promote, water-saving measures need to be implemented. In the regional  industrial structure adjustment, Eco-Tertiary Industry should   be   developed   as   one   of    the   major   components.   The   evaluation   of eco-hydrological   services   in   the   Qilian   Mountains   should    be   based   on   the coordination of the ecological maintain  in upstream and agriculture/animal husbandry in  the middle  and lower  reaches,  and the  economic  and social  development  of the whole  Qilian regions  should  be  considered.  We  should objectively  understand  the contradiction between  ‘green water’  storage in  the upstream  mountainous and  ‘blue water’ demand in the middle and lower reaches.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34511
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

Files in This Item:
File Name/ File Size Content Type Version Access License
孙飞翔--祁连山区小流域生态系统水文调节服务研究.pdf(4328KB)学位论文--限制开放 联系获取全文

Recommended Citation:
孙飞翔. 祁连山区小流域生态系统水文调节服务研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2014.
Service
Recommend this item
Sava as my favorate item
Show this item's statistics
Export Endnote File
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[孙飞翔]'s Articles
CSDL cross search
Similar articles in CSDL Cross Search
[孙飞翔]‘s Articles
Related Copyright Policies
Null
Social Bookmarking
Add to CiteULike Add to Connotea Add to Del.icio.us Add to Digg Add to Reddit
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 
评注功能仅针对注册用户开放,请您登录
您对该条目有什么异议,请填写以下表单,管理员会尽快联系您。
内 容:
Email:  *
单位:
验证码:   刷新
您在IR的使用过程中有什么好的想法或者建议可以反馈给我们。
标 题:
 *
内 容:
Email:  *
验证码:   刷新

Items in IR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

 

Valid XHTML 1.0!
Copyright © 2007-2018  中国科学院生态环境研究中心 - Feedback
Powered by CSpace