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题名: 北京城市客运交通生态辨识与生态交通发展模式研究
作者: 王中航
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2015-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 王如松 ; 周传斌
关键词: 北京 ; 交通 ; 生态交通 ; 复合生态效益 ; 评价 ; 模拟,Beijing ; Transport ; Ecomobility ; Complex eco-benefits ; Assessment ; Simulation
其他题名: Research on identification of beijing urban passenger transport ecology and development of urban ecomobility
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:       交通作为城市的重要基础设施,是一类典型的社会-经济-自然的复合生态系统。交通问题的生态根源包括源渠库汇上的城市结构(规划、布局)不合理、系统基本 组分匹配不合理、生态流过饱和、生态流向不均,以及观念、机制、管理与技术上的生态板结与破碎等。本文基于复合生态系统理论,以北京市为主要研究案例,系 统辨识了城市交通系统的结构、功能及其生态学根源,并研究了两类典型的改善城市交通系统的生态交通模式,本文的主要研究结果如下:
      (1)城市交通包括时序结构、组成结构、交通系统组分要素关系等内容。其评价指标包括交通网络、交通出行、交通行为、交通效率、交通环境,通过对北京城市 生态交通评价,表现为交通网络完善程度较低、交通出行结构比例不合理、交通行为路权分配及道路资源占有率不合理、交通效率低且不断恶化、交通环境压力逐渐 增大。
      (2)北京城市交通糖葫芦串能够最大实现路网速度提升程度为:早高峰平均提高1.66倍,晚高峰平均提高1.68倍,拥堵指数降到2以下,实现从中度拥堵 状态改善为畅通状态,进而也提高整个城市的出行效率,缩短了出行时间,以10Km为例对比小汽车与糖葫芦串模式出行费用,最低仅为小汽车出行费用的 0.15倍,最高为0.19倍。该模式能够最大节能97.3%,NOx减排80.6%,大大削弱因交通污染排放引起的灰霾效应影响;社会效益包括增加运动 改善身体健康状况、提高出行效率、改善交通出行质量、能够带动商业经济的发展和就业机会的增加,进而保障城市功能的正常运转。
      (3)在乘坐定制公交的乘客中,有40%之前出行方式为小汽车出行,因此,通过对比定制公交和小汽车出行,定制公交的复合生态效应包括:自然效益上的节能 减排、动态道路面积占用的减少和停车位面积的节约等;经济效益上平均能够节约一定比例的出行费用,但是,相对传统普适公交,定制公交出行费用增幅较大,约 有87%的乘客节约了出行时间,具有较好的时间经济成本效益;社会效应上,定制公交相对小汽车能够缓解拥堵、削减大气污染、增加道路资源利用率和社会公平 性。
      (4)针对北京城市生态交通的发展,本文结合创新的交通模式与政策等适应性管理方法,提出了整体的对策和建议:创新交通模式,优化出行结构;完善路网设 施,保障生态优先;体制技术协调,适应管理交通;全民参与行动,共建生态交通。
英文摘要:       Urban transport as an important infrastructure is a typical kind of social-economic and natural complex eco-system. Ecological sources of tranport problems could be explaned on the aspects of source, drain, bank and sink, which include unreasonable urban structure(planning and layout), unreasonable macthing between the basic system components, excessive saturation and nonuniform of ecological flow, and also include ecological harden and broken concept, mechanism, management and technology. Based on the complex eco-system theory, this article took Beijing for the mainly case of study, systematic identified its transport system’s structure, function and its ecological root causes, and studied two kinds of typical ecmobility modes which could improve the traffic. The mainly results includes:
      (1) Urban transport includes the eco-relationship of its temporal and ordered structure, the eco-relationship of its making-up structure, and the eco-relationship between its system constituent elements, roles and characters. Ecomobility’s evaluating indexs include traffic network, traffic travelling structure, traffic behaviors, traffic efficient and traffic environment. And the assessment of Beijing ecomobility is that the lower level of performance for traffic network perfect proportion, unreasonable traffic travelling structure, unreasonable distribution of road right and share of road resource, lower and deteriotating traffic travelling efficient and the increasing pressure of traffic enviuronment.
      (2) The largest improvement of Beijing candied hawthorns traffic mode on road network speed is that during the morning peak could be increased to its 1.66 times and during the evening peak could be increased to its 1.68 times. The candied hawthorns could drop the traffic congestion index below 2, which could make the traffic state improved from middle congestion to smooth state, which leads to increase the whole traffic efficient and decrease the travelling time consumption. Taking 10 km for an travelling distance example, the cost of candied hawthorns is just 0.15 to 0.19 times of car travelling. The higest energy saving of this mode is 97.3 percent, the higest decreasing NOx emissions is 80.6 percent, which could greatly weaken the haze effect caused by traffic pollution. Its social benefits include increasing movement to improve physical health, improving the traffic efficient and quality, promote the development of commercial economic and the increase of employment, and guarantee the normal operation of urban functions.
      (3) There are 40 percents cunstomed bus passengers taking cars before, so through the comparison of car and cuntomed bus travelling, the comprehensive eco-benefits includes:natural benefits of energy conservation and emissions reduction, dynamic road area occupied reduction and parking area saving and so on. Economic benefit of saving a percentage of travelling cost, but realtively higher than the traditional public bus, and about 87 percent of the customed bus passengers saving their travelling time, giving this mode a well economic benefit of time and cost. Compared to the car travelling, the customed bus mode could relieve the traffic congestion, reduce the impact of air pollution, increase the using efficient of road resouces and social fairness.
      (4) To realize Beijing ecomobility’s development, this article gives a whole countermeasures and suggestions, which combined with the adaptive management methods, including innovative traffic modes and policies. The concrete contents include: innovating traffic modes and optimizing the travelling structure, improving the road network infrastructures and safeguarding the ecological priority, coordinating the institution and technology and adaptive managing methods’taking, participating of the whole society to bulid the ecomobility.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34534
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
王中航. 北京城市客运交通生态辨识与生态交通发展模式研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
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