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题名: 循环海水养殖系统消毒副产物生成与初步控制研究
作者: 张海婷
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2014-11
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 强志民
关键词: 循环海水养殖系统 ; 消毒副产物 ; 氯消毒 ; 氯胺消毒 ; 臭氧-生物活性炭,recirculating mariculture system ; disinfection byproducts ; chlorination ; chloramination ; ozone-bioactivated carbon
其他题名: Formation and potential control of disinfection byproducts in recirculating mariculture system
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要:       目前,消毒剂被广泛地应用于循环海水养殖系统中,以控制海生动物疾病、提高海水水质。然而,由于海洋馆海水消毒过程中化学反应过程相较于淡水更为复杂,因 而目前有关于海水养殖系统中的消毒副产物(DBPs)生成和种类的研究鲜有报道。同时,循环海水系统中消毒副产物的累积特性使得海水消毒副产物的控制更具 有迫切性。
      首先,论文全面调查了北京海洋馆循环海水养殖系统中不同水质和不同消毒工艺下DBPs的赋存种类与浓度。结果表明目前采用的海水养殖工艺可以有效的控制海 生异养菌的滋生,但更多的关注应该给予消毒过程中形成的消毒副产物。其中,各池体内主要由臭氧消毒产生的自有氯和自由溴已达到可危害海洋生物健康的浓度。 同时,哺乳动物池中检测出高浓度的BrO3–和ClO3–,其浓度已分别超过美国国家环保署对于饮用水规定的污染浓度限值19–25和52–54倍。哺乳 动物池内的NO3–浓度极高,超过国家海水水质标准中养殖用水标准近1100倍。因而,海洋馆内的DBPs正严重威胁着其中生物的安全和健康。
      其次,分别考察了使用氯和氯胺消毒时海水中有机前驱物、溴离子(Br–)浓度和预臭氧投加剂量对于三卤甲烷(THM4)、卤乙酸(HAAs)、碘代三卤甲 烷(I-THMs)及卤代乙酰胺(HAcAms)生成浓度和种类的影响。结果表明随着溶解性有机碳浓度由4.5 mg/L增加至9.4 mg/L,氯和氯胺消毒下,THMs与HAAs的生成量分别增加了3.2–7.8倍和1.1–2.3倍。当Br–浓度由3 mg/L增加至68 mg/L时,可显著提高THM4、I-THMs及HAcAms的生成,同时使所有检测的DBPs的相应溴代取代率增加。然而Br–浓度增加对于HAAs生 成量的影响却不大。1 mg/L的预臭氧剂量可以使得后续氯消毒过程中所有研究DBPs的生成量大幅降低,同时使得后续氯胺消毒过程中I-THMs的生成量有所减少。由于氯胺消 毒与氯消毒相比可以产生更少的消毒副产物,因而氯胺更适合作为水族馆海水处理过程中的消毒剂。
      最后,设计并运行了臭氧-生物活性炭装置以试图去除消毒副产物有机前驱物的规律,从而控制RAS中采用氯和氯胺消毒时有机消毒副产物的生成。实验结果表 明,在运行时间达到1500 BV时,TOC的去除率由初始的35%迅速降到5%左右。目前,活性炭的吸附已达到饱和时,活性炭柱的主要作用为BAC柱,其对TOC的去除率约为5%。
      本文在对循环海水养殖系统中不同水质和消毒工艺下海水消毒副产物赋存种类和浓度全面调查的基础上,考察了采用氯、氯胺消毒时消毒副产物的生成规律以及臭氧 -活性炭工艺对有机前驱物的去除效果,为循环海水养殖系统中消毒副产物的控制提供了理论依据。
英文摘要:
      At present, disinfection is commonly adopted in recirculating mariculture system (RMS) to control marine animal diseases and improve water quality. The chemistry associated with the disinfection of aquarium seawater is more complicated than that of freshwater, therefore limited information is available on the formation and speciation of disinfection byproduct (DBPs) in marine aquaria. The accumulating character in recirculating seawater treatment makes it more urgent to control the DBPs formation during disinfection in RMS.
      First, this study investigated various DBPs concentrations and speciations under different water qualities and disinfection processes in Beijign Aquarium. It was found that the adopted disinfection processes were highly effective in controlling marine heterotrophic bacteria, but emerging concerns were raised on the formation of various kinds of DBPs including the secondary oxidants, inorganic oxyanions, and organic species. Free chlorine and free bromine were generated from ozonation with health-relevant concentrations. High concentrations of BrO3– and ClO3– were formed in mammal tanks, which exceeded the USEPA-regulated maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water by 19–25 and 52–54 times, respectively. Extremely high concentrations of NO3– were detected in mammal tanks, which greatly exceeded the MCL regulated by the Sea Water Quality Standard of China for mariculture industry (Class II) by about 1100 times. Undoubtedly, the presence of various DBPs posed serious health threats to aquarium animals.
      Second, the effects of organic precursor, bromide (Br–) and pre-ozonation on the formation and speciation of several typical classes of DBPs, including trihalomethanes (THM4), haloacetic acids (HAAs), iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs), and haloacetamides (HAcAms), were investigated during the chlorination/chloramination of aquarium seawater. Results indicate that with an increase in dissolved organic carbon concentration from 4.5 to 9.4 mg/L, the concentrations of THM4 and HAAs increased by 3.2–7.8 times under chlorination and by 1.1–2.3 times under chloramination. An increase in Br– concentration from 3 to 68 mg/L generally enhanced the formation of THM4, I-THMs and HAcAms and increased the bromine substitution factors of all studied DBPs as well, whereas it impacted insignificantly on the yield of HAAs. Pre-ozonation with 1 mg/L O3 dose substantially reduced the formation of all studied DBPs in the subsequent chlorination and I-THMs in the subsequent chloramination. Because chloramination produces much less DBPs than chlorination, it tends to be more suitable for disinfection of aquarium seawater.
      As last, an ozone-bioactivated carbon (O3-BAC) system was designed and operated in an attempt to remove the DBPs precursor and control their formation upon chlorination or chloramination in the RAS. The DOC removal efficiency of the activated carbon column dropped from initial value of approximately 35% to less than 5% in 1500 bed volume operation time. For now, the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon became saturated and GAC filter functioned primarily as a BAC filter, and the DOC removal efficiency kept around 5%.
      Based on the investigation of concentration and speciation of DBPs formed in the RMS of Beijing Aquarium, the influencing factors on DBPs formation upon chlorination/chloramination  and organic precursor removal efficiency via O3-BAC pilot tests were evaluated, which provides theoretical basis for controlling DBPs in RMS.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34539
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
张海婷. 循环海水养殖系统消毒副产物生成与初步控制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2014.
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