中国科学院生态环境研究中心机构知识库
Advanced  
RCEES OpenIR  > 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室  > 学位论文
题名: 生态系统服务评估、权衡及其与地理环境因子之间的关系 —— 以延河流域为例
作者: 郑振敏
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2015-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 傅伯杰
关键词: 生态系统服务 ; 权衡与协同 ; 土地利用 ; 热点地区 ; 景观格局,Ecosystem service, Tradeoff and synergy, Land use, Hotspots, Landscape metrics
其他题名: The assessment and tradeoff of ecosystem services and its relationship with environment factors —— a case study in Yanhe basin
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要:       延河流域是典型的黄土高原丘陵沟壑区,长期以来过度开发与不合理的土地利用使生态系统服务提供能力下降。退耕还林还草工程实施以来,延河流域土地利用状况 发生显著变化,表现为林草地面积增加和耕地面积减少。本研究以延河流域为研究区,对退耕还林还草前后土地利用变化、生态系统服务时空变异和生态服务相互关 系进行了定量研究;对生态系统竞合关系的热点地区进行识别并初步分析了热点地区具有潜在影响的地理环境因子;为生态系统服务管理及生态保护政策的制定提供 科学依据。
      本研究首先根据遥感解译结果将土地利用分为森林、灌丛、草地、水域 、居住用地、未利用地和农地其中类型;在1980年、2000年和2008年三期土地利用图的基础上计算1980-2000和2000-2008年两个阶 段的土地利用转移矩阵,研究不同阶段土地利用变化的特征以及它们之间的数量关系;用Fragstats3.3 软件对计算三个年份的土地利用景观格局指数并对其特征和变化进行分析。
      土地利用结构分析表明在1980年、2000年和2008年,各土地利用分类面积大小顺序都是依次为草地>农地>灌 丛>森林>水域>居住用地>未利用地。1980-2008年的28年间森林呈现持续增加的态 势;灌丛与草地面积则都是出现先减少后增加的趋势;农地面积在2000-2008年(第二阶段)降低速度却远高过1980-2000年(第一阶段)的增长 速率。在第一阶段,面积增加最多的土地利用类型是农地;面积减少最多的土地利用类型是草地和灌丛。在第二阶段,延河流域的土地利用类型改变基本上是农地向 其他土地利用类型转变的过程。在2000-2008年的土地利用景观结构特征则发生较为显著变化,各土地利用类型的斑块总数和斑块平均面积都发生较大幅度 的变化。在2008年,森林、灌丛、草地、和未利用地的重要值都较2000年有不同幅度的升高,而农地则出现下降。 在土地利用的多样性和均匀度方面,出现先上升后下降的态势。 对1980年、2000 年和2008 年延河流域五项生态系统服务进行了评估,包括净初级生产力(NPP)、产水(WY)、土壤保持(SC)、水源涵养(WR)和粮食生产(CP)。在评估的基 础上对生态系统服务的时空变异进行分析,研究结果表明在1980-2000年阶段各项生态系统服务的空间格局并未有明显变化;NPP、土壤保持和水源涵养 在2000-2008年都得到不同程度的增强,而产水和作物生产则出现下降趋势。NPP、产水、土壤保持和水源涵养都呈现出从东南向西北方向递减的趋势, 这可能与流域的气候差异有关。在生态系统服务热点区域中,灌丛具有最高比例,说明灌丛最适合在该流域生长。产水服务与土壤保持服务由于变化幅度的不均衡导 致在流域内的分布更不均匀。作物生产服务强度呈现出从四周向河谷区域递增的趋势。
      生态系统服务与土地利用之间关系的分析结果表明相较于其他土地利用类型,在延河流域灌丛和草地可以较好地实现水土保持服务,而森林可以较好地实现土壤保持 服务。下游或者高等级支流具有相对较好的水土保持服务,高等级子流域的作物生产服务也比较好。从整个延河流域看,虽然退耕还林显著改善了全流域的生态系统 服务能力,但并未改变生态系统服务在全流域的相对空间布局。
      运用空间相关性分析可以帮助判定生态系统服务之间的关系。正为同向变化,视为协同,负为反向变化,视为权衡。延河流域生态系统服务空间相关性分析结果表明 净初级生产力与产水以及土壤保持与产水为权衡关系;土壤保持与净初级生产力为协同关系。NPP与产水的权衡热点地区具有明显的空间分布特征,主要集中在延 河流域的中部和南部边缘地区,呈现一个倒“T”字型。土壤保持与产水的权衡热点地区没有明显的分布趋势或集中区域,呈现出在流域内比较随机分布的状态。土 壤保持与净初级生产力协同效率最高的热点区域主要分布在延河流域的南部和西北部地区,与低效率区域呈现“南北对应”的分布格局。
      通过热点地区地理环境因子统计特征与全流域统计值的比较,可以快速筛选出具有潜在影响的地理环境因子并对其进行初步分析。研究结果表明NPP与产水权衡热 点区域中灌丛所占的比重最大,植被覆盖度平均值为48.33%,超过全流域的平均值18%;平均蒸散发量比流域均值高出16%。土壤保持与产水权衡热点区 域中,灌丛所占比例比其在全流域平均值高25%,草地则相对偏低15%;平均坡度比全流域的均值低7%;平均植被覆盖度超过全流域均值5%;平均蒸散发量 比流域均值高出9%。土壤保持与NPP协同热点区域中,灌丛所占比例比全流域平均值高44.5%,草地则稍微偏低5%;平均坡度比全流域均值明显高出 23%;平均植被覆盖度、平均降雨量和平均蒸散发量与全流域均值无明显差异。
      生态系统服务相互关系的定量化和竞合关系热点地区的识别可以更好地指导生态保护政策的实施和生态系统服务管理。
英文摘要:       As a typical hilly and gully region in Loess Plateau, Yanhe Basin was faced with adverse influence of ecosystem service degradation caused by long-term overexploitation and irrational land use. Since the implementing of the Grain for Green (GfG) project in 1999, land use in Yanhe Basin had been greatly changed which is characterized by expansion of woodland and grassland and shrinking of cropland. This study took Yanhe Basin as a study area, quantified land use change, the spatiotemporal variation of ecosystem services and the relationship between ecosystem services, identified the tradeoff or sysnergy hotspots between ecosystem services, ananlyzed the qotential influencing factors for formulation of hotspots, intending to provide scientific basis for management of ecosystem services and ecological conservation policy.
      Firstly, according to the results of interpretation from remote sensing, land use was divided into six types, including forest land, shrub land, grassland, water, residential land, unused land and farmland types; based on maps of 1980, 2000 and 2008, transfer matrix for land use was calculated in the periods of 1980-2000 (first stage) and 2000-2008 (second stage) and the characteristics of land use change and the quantitative relationship between land use were analyzed; using Fragstats3.3 software to calculate the index of landscape pattern for land use in 1980, 2000 and 2008.
      The result of structure analysis for land use shows that in 1980, 2000 and 2008, the sequence sorted by the size of land use was followed by grassland > farmland > shrub land> forest land> residential land > unused land. Forest showed a continuous increasing trend during 28 years; shrub and grassland was decreased in first stage and then increased in second stage; for farmland, the speed to reduing area in second stage was far higher than growth rate in first stage. In the first stage, the largest increase in area occurred on farmland; the largest reduction in area was showed in grassland and shrub. In the second stage, the process of land use change in Yanhe River Basin was basically dominated by the transformation from farmland to other land use. The characteristics of land use pattern and structure changed significantly in 2000-2008, and the number of the land use patch and average patch area were changed greatly. Compared to 2000, the importance value for forest, shrub, grassland, and unused land increased in different extent in 2008, while the farmland decreased. The diversity and evenness for the land use appeared decline after rising trend firstly.
      This research assessed five individual ecosystem services of net primary production (NPP), water yield (WY), soil conservation (SC), water retention (WR) and crop production (CP) of 1980, 2000 and 2008 in Yanhe Basin. Based on the evaluation of ecosystem services, temporal and spatial variations of ecosystem setvices were analyzed. The results showed that the spatial pattern of ecosystem services in 1980-2000 did not change obviously; NPP, soil conservation and water retention have been enhanced in different degree in 2000-2008, while the water yield and crop production declined. NPP, water yield, soil conservation and water retention displayed a declining trend from the southeast to the northwest, possiblely caused by the differences in climatic condition. In the hotspots of ecosystem service, the highest proportion occupied by shrub indicated that shrub grows best in the basin. For water yield and soil conservation, uneven changes in amplitude led to more serious unbalanced distribution in Yanhe basin. The intensity of crop production showed an increasing trend from the periphery to the valley.
      Results deduced from analysis of the relationship between ecosystem services and land use showed that the shrub and grass in Yanhe basin could achieve the goal of soil conservation and water retention better, compared with other land uses; and forest service can provide soil conservation well. There were having good soil conservation and water retention service in the downstream or high level tributaries, and high yield on crop production is inclined to occur in high level tributaries. Although GGP has improve ecosystem service in Yanhe basin, but did not change spatial layout of the ecosystem services in the whole basin.
      The spatial correlation analysis is helpful to determine the relationship between ecosystem services. The positive sign of correlation coefficient means that sysnergy occurred between ecosystem service, and the negative sign is considered as tradeoff. The results of spatial correlation analysis between ecosystem services in Yanhe basin showed that there was a tradeoff between NPP and water yield, and the tradeoff also existed between soil conservation and water yield; the relationship between soil conservation was considered as synergy. The characteristics of spatial distribution for the tradeoff hotspots between NPP and water yield was obvious, and the hotspots concentrated in the central basin and marginal area of southern basin, showed as inverted "T". The tradeoff hotspots between soil conservation and water yield were distributed randomly in the basin. There were synergy hotspots between soil conservation and NPP, mainly located in southern and northwestern basin.
      By comparision of the statistical characteristics of geographical and environmental factors between hotspots and whole basin, the potential influencing factors could be filtered and discussed in a preliminary analysis. The results showed that the shrub land accounted for the largest proportion of tradeoff hotspot between NPP and water yield; the average vegetation coverage for their hotspots was 48.33%, higher than 18% of its value in whole basin; the average evapotranspiration is 16% higher than the basin. In tradeoff hotspots between soil conservation and water yield, the proportion occupied by shrub was 25% higher than its value in whole basin, and the grassland was 15% lower; the average slope was 7% lower than its value in basin; the average vegetation coverage was 5% higher than the basin; the average evapotranspiration was 9% higher than the average in basin. In tradeoff hotspots between soil conservation and NPP, the proportion occupied by shrub was 44.5% higher than its value in whole basin, and the grassland was 5% lower; the average slope was 23% higher than its value in basin; the average vegetation coverage was 5% higher than the basin; the average evapotranspiration was 9% higher than the average in basin; for the average vegetation coverage, average precipitation and average evapotranspiration, there was no significant difference between hotspots and the basin.
      The Implementation of the ecological conservataion policy and the management of ecosystem services would benefit from the research on quantification of relationship between ecosystem services and identification of hotspots for tradeoff or synergy.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34544
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

Files in This Item:
File Name/ File Size Content Type Version Access License
郑振敏--生态系统服务评估、权衡及其与地理环境因子之间的关系 —— 以延河流域为例.pdf(3797KB)学位论文--限制开放 联系获取全文

Recommended Citation:
郑振敏. 生态系统服务评估、权衡及其与地理环境因子之间的关系 —— 以延河流域为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2015.
Service
Recommend this item
Sava as my favorate item
Show this item's statistics
Export Endnote File
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[郑振敏]'s Articles
CSDL cross search
Similar articles in CSDL Cross Search
[郑振敏]‘s Articles
Related Copyright Policies
Null
Social Bookmarking
Add to CiteULike Add to Connotea Add to Del.icio.us Add to Digg Add to Reddit
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 
评注功能仅针对注册用户开放,请您登录
您对该条目有什么异议,请填写以下表单,管理员会尽快联系您。
内 容:
Email:  *
单位:
验证码:   刷新
您在IR的使用过程中有什么好的想法或者建议可以反馈给我们。
标 题:
 *
内 容:
Email:  *
验证码:   刷新

Items in IR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

 

Valid XHTML 1.0!
Copyright © 2007-2018  中国科学院生态环境研究中心 - Feedback
Powered by CSpace