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题名: 农村复合生态系统结构与可持续性研究
作者: 卢兵友
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 1998
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 王如松
关键词: 农村复合生态系统 ; rural complex ecosystem ; 结构 ; structure ; 可持续性 ; sustainablity ; 结构多样性 ; structural diversity ; 结构主导性 ; structural dominance
中文摘要:       农村社会-经济-自然复合生态系统是人工生态系统发展进化的必然产物。在这一进化过程中,结构耦合的好坏是人工生态系统是否可持续发展的一个关键问题。结构问题主要包括结构元的单一性、结构链的不完整性和结构网的不合理性。结构问题的实质是人们在生态系统的管理过程中,未处理好系统结构多样性与结构主导性、结构开放性与结构自主性之间的关系,即未处理好系统发展的稳度与发展力度之间的关系。合理的结构规划与设计将有利于更好地促进农村复合生态系统的可持续发展。目前,从不同的结构层次对农村复合生态系统结构和可持续性关系的研究,是国内外同类研究中的一个薄弱环节。本研究在分析不同结构层次的农村复合生态系统基础上,结合农田、农业和农村生态系统的大量实例,对系统结构特征及其与可持续发展关系的动力学机制、控制论原理及工程调控手段进行了系统研究。研究得出以下结论:农村复合生态系统由较低级的农田生态系统,向高级复合生态系统的发展过程,是一个系统结构由简单到复杂、由单一到多样进化的过程,也是农业资源综合利用、产品丰富多样和系统生产产业化、规模化和生态化的发展过程。在这一过程中,资源生态位、人类对产品的需求、科学技术、体制、政策和文化等因素是推动农村复合生态系统发展的主要动力学机制。竞争、共生、再生和自生是调控农村复合生态系统发展的四条控制论原则。农村复合生态系统可持续发展的结构特征有四个,即系统结构的多样性、主导性、开放性和自主性。农村复合生态系统的结构包括结构元、结构链和结构网。结构元是由物理、生物、产业和管理元等组成;结构链是由生产链、加工链、消费链、资源开发链、污染物处理链和管理链等组成;结构网是由资源环境网、生产网络、市场网、基础设施网、社会文化网和信息网等组成。结构多样性的实质是结构元、结构链和结构网的多样性。不同层次的生态系统具有不同的结构多样性特征。农村复合生态系统结构元的多样性反映了构成系统的结构元中生物组分、产业组分、物理组分和管理组分的多样性。结构链的多样性反映了结构元在资源开发、产品生产、环境治理和社会进步等单目标、单功能作用下,所形成的物质、能量和信息的链式耦合关系的多样化程度。结构网的多样性反映了多种生产、消费、管理关系链相互耦合所形成的网络多样性,这是系统层次上的多样性。元的多样性容易被人们认识,而链和网的结构和功能多样性却常常被人们所忽略。结构多样性的评价是对结构元、结构链和结构网三种结构组分的整体评价。对结构主导性的研究表明,结构主导性是由主导组分、主导链和主导网组成。本研究通过结构灵敏度分析方法确定系统的结构主导性因子。结构主导性的评价是对主导组分、主导链和主导网的综合评价。系统结构的开放性是指资源、市场、物质、能量、人才、信息和政策等的开放性。农村复合生态系统稳定性与多样性之间的关系不是线性的,而是与主导性、开放性及自主性有关的非线性的网络关系,其中,起主导作用的是结构多样性与结构主导性之间关系的协调性,和结构开放性与自主性之间关系的协调性。对影响农村复合生态系统结构的四种主要指标的分析可以发现,结构多样性和结构自主性体现了系统发展的稳定程度;结构主导性和结构开放度则反映了系统发展的力度,即发展的速度和强度。光有稳度没有力度无法实现系统的发展和进化,光有力度没有稳度则无法达到系统发展的稳定性和可持续性,只有稳度和力度的统一才有可能使系统的发展持续稳定。对包括单一生物组分、两个生物组分、三个生物组分和多个生物组分的18类农田生态系统结构多样性的系统研究表明,在一定投入水平和一定程度的组分异质性前提下,适当增加农田生态系统组分的种类和数量,有利于提高系统的经济生产力,增强系统的稳定性。对单作、小麦玉米套种、玉米大豆间作和水稻、鸭和鱼间作组成的四种类型的农田生态系统结构多样性和结构主导性的对比分析表明,四种类型系统的结构多样性指数分别为0、0.095、0.187和0.446;结构主导性指数分别为1、0.910、0.842和0.478。此时,由三种生物组分组成系统的平均经济生产力分别是两组分和单组分系统的1.78和2.77倍:多生物组分、两组分和单组分系统的光能利用率分别为1.17、0.68和0.35。同时,随着生物组分数量的增加,系统土壤化学性状有逐渐改善的趋势;系统中病虫杂草的发生概率也大大减少。对由水稻、鸭和鱼组成的四种模式农田生态系统的对比研究表明,由稻鱼鸭三种生物组分组成的农田生态系统的结构多样性指数为0.4460,主导性指数为0.4777,在四类系统中稳定性最高,功能最强。在湖南省桃源县宝洞育村五种有代表性的种养结合型农业生态系统,以及江苏省镇江市驸马庄村、安徽省颍上县小张庄村、山东省陵县张西楼村等三种农林牧副渔复合型农业生态系统结构多样性的研究表明,当前农业复合生态系统具有一定的结构多样性特征。构成系统的结构元主要是生物及其加工环节,例如,食品加工业、畜牧产品加工业等,缺少适当的组分多样性和适当的产业化发展规模,同时,系统的开放度也严重不足。特别是没有充分利用在生态系统中起分解转化和缓冲稳定作用的生态服务性功能组分的作用,即没有充分利用生态服务组分,导致不能充分发挥系统自身对物质的循环利用功能。导致不能充分发挥系统自身对物质的循环利用功能。对种养结合型农业生态系统结构多样性的研究表明,当系统的组分由两个增加到五个,系统的结构模式由粮鱼型发展为粮猪沼气型和粮猪沼气鱼果型时,五组分模式的经济生产力分别是三组分和两组分的6.89和13.74倍;五组分模式的氮素产出分别是三组分和两组分的1.32和3.98倍。而且,随着组分数量的增加,系统的稳定性指数也不断提高,两组分、三组分和五组分模式的稳定性指数分别为0.1742、0.3610和0.4141。因此,通过对比分析可以看出,当种养结合型农业生态系统结构多样性指数为0.5241,主导性指数为0.4939时,系统的稳定性最高,功能最强。同样,当农林牧副渔复合生态系统结构多样性指数为0.5664,主导性指数为0.3670时,系统的稳定性最高,功能最强。对以山东省西单村为例的农村复合生态系统的研究表明,当系统结构多样性程度过高,单个组分缺乏适当的发展规模,系统缺乏主导性产品和主导产业,系统又没有适当的技术、资金和信息等的投入时,系统的发展虽然能保持相对的稳定,却只能是低水平的稳定,不利于系统的持续发展。例如,在西单村复合生态系统中平均每种组分的年净经济收入不足40万元。主导组分工业的总净经济收入虽然达到415万元,但却是分散于几个工业企业。组分发展缺乏规模,缺乏发展的结构主导性。在此系统中,通过配合饲料、秸秆、粪便和产业链等四种结构链组成的结构网,基本达到了副产品循环利用率为100%和无废弃物产生。同时,土壤肥力状况也有一定程度的改善。根据计算,此系统的结构多样性指数高达0.6556,主导性指数仅为0.15左右,因此,系统缺乏进一步发展的力度。通过对上述多种类型复合生态系统结构与可持续性的研究,可以得出如下结论,当农村复合生态系统结构多样性指数和主导性指数都保持在0.4-0.5左右时,系统结构关系最协调,系统功能也具有相对稳定性。结构多样性指数过高,如西单村复合生态系统,常常造成系统发展缺乏力度,不利于系统的持续发展。结构多样性指数过低时,例如,单一生物组分的农田生态系统,系统发展缺乏稳度,同样不利于系统的持续发展。因此,从结构特征研究系统的可持续性有利于把握系统的本质。农村产业生态工程是农村复合生态系统向多样化的产品结构、生态化的产业工程结构和系统化的多种产业耦合模式发展的必由之路,是实现结构组分之间合理耦合、协调共生和促进人类社会持续发展的重要途径。对包括自然、社会和经济等多种结构组分在内的农村产业生态工程的结构设计,是保证从资源开发、产品生产、产品消费和管理服务等生产全过程良好发育的关键。以黑龙江省肇东市玉米生态工程为例,对玉米籽粒、玉米芯、玉米秸秆和玉米根茬等四种产品,从结构元、结构链和结构网三个方面进行结构设计,制定的玉米产品利用的生态工程结构设计方案是农村产业生态工程结构设计程序的具体实施和验证,这是前人的研究中所没有涉及到的。利用经济增殖率、环境耗竭率、新增就业机会、科技贡献率、资源转化率和生态经济位开发率六项评价指标,对设计方案的评价结果显示,设计后系统的得分为8.68,设计结果得到当地产业部门的好评。
英文摘要:
       An artificial ecosystem will eventually evolve into a social, economic and natural rural complex ecosystems. In this process, the connection between different components of its structure is a key issue for sustainable development of the ecosystem. This issue consists of three aspects: the simplieation of the structural elements, the uncompletement of the structural chain and the irrationality of the structural web. These stems mainly from the unharmony between structural diversity and dominance, structural openness and independence during the process of systems management. That is to say the relationship between stability and the speed of the systems is not balanced. A good planning and design will be favorable for promoting the sustainability of the systems. Little attention has been paid to the research on the relationship between the structure and sustainability of rural complex ecosystems of different structural types. Based on a series of case studies, for example, farmland ecosystem, agricultural ecosystem and rural ecosystems, this paper focuses mainly on the dynamic mechanisms, cybernatic principles, and the engineering approaches concerning the relationship between the sustainable development and the structural characters of the rural complex ecosystems. Main results are as follow: The evoluation of natural ecosystem from farmland ecosystem to rural complex ecosystem reflects the dynamic of structure from simple to complex, single to diversity. It is also an important way to utilize agricultural resource comprehensively, to enrich products, to industrialize and proportionize production. The dynamic mechanisms of rural complex ecosystem consist of resources niches, consumption requirements, scientific technologies, policies and cultures. Competition, coexisting, recycling and self-resiliency are the four cybernetics principles of the system. Four factors infleunce the sustainable development of the system, namely, structural diversity, dominance, openness and independence. The structure of rural complex ecosystems covers structural elements, chain and web. The structural elements are composed of environments, organisms, industries and management. The structural chains are composed of production, processing, consumption, resource utilization, pollutants treatment chains etc., The structural webs are composed of resource and environment, producting, market, infrastructure, culture and information webs. The diversity of structure refers the diversity of structural elements, chains and webs at different levels. The diversity of elements means the diversity of living organisms, industries, physical environments and management components. Diversity of chains reflects the degree of chain combination of materials, energy and information driven by some single aim and function, such as resource exploitation, production, environmental management and the progress of society. Diversity of webs reflects the degree of intercombination between different chains at systemetic level. It is very easy for man to recognize the diversity of elements, while the diversities of structure and function in chains and webs are always reglected. The function of system is evaluated with three indexes. Dominant component, chain and web are three parts of structural dominance which are settled by structural sensitivity. The openness is formed by resources, market, energy, intelligence, information and policy. The relation between diversity and stability of a structure is a non-linar web which is related with dominance, openness and independence, rather than a linar relation. The harmony between diversity and dominance, openness and independence dominantes the relation between diversity and stability. Structural diversity and independence are the decisive factors stablizing the development of ecosystem while dominance and openness are the decisive factors of the ecosystem growth. Harmony between the stability and the increase of an ecosystem is the unique factor leading system develop sustainably. Systemetic study on 18 types of farmland ecosystems with different amount of organisms such as one, two, three and more than three organisms shows that the properly increase of the varieties and the amount of biomass actors can be favorable for the boosting of economic productivity and the enhancement of the stability of system. Its prerequistite is certain amount of input of cash, technology, materials, information and certain degree of elements' heterogeneity. Analysis to four kinds of farmland ecosystems, that is, monoculture, intercropping between wheat and corn, corn and soybean, and rice, duck and fish, shows that the structural diversity indexes of each are 0, 0.095, 0.187, and 0.446, respectively; while the dominance indexes are 1, 0.910, 0.842 and 0.478, respectively. Meanwhile, the average economic productivity of three-component system is 1.78 and 2.77 times more than the couple and single component ecosystems. Results also reveal that the rates of light energy utilization in several, couple and single components systems are 1.17, 0.68 and 0.35, respectively. A tendency of the improvement of soil chemical properties and the decrease of deseases, insects and weed in the systems is found following with the increase of organism components. So, we can conclude that one farmland ecosystem with rational combination of several components has the highest stability and function, and single element ecosystem is a most unsustainable farmland ecosystem. Strong evidence can be abserved from a farmland ecosystem consisting of rice, duck and fish in which the indexes of structural diversity and dominance are 0.4460 and 0.4777, respectively. To uncover the rules of agricultural ecosystem, three kinds of cases are selected.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34914
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
卢兵友. 农村复合生态系统结构与可持续性研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 1998.
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