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题名: 农户行为与西藏农业、农村持续发展-以达孜县为例
作者: 刘伟
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 1999
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 赵士洞 ; 成升魁
关键词: 农户 ; Farmer ; 农户行为 ; Farmer's behaviors ; 农业和农村持续发展 ; sustainable agriculture and rural development ; 西藏达孜县 ; Tibet ; Dagze County
中文摘要:       农户和农户行为问题在区域农业和农村持续发展中起着举足轻重的作用。因为农业和农村持续发展问题从根本上说就是关于农户、农村生活方式和在农村地区不断解决供需矛盾的问题。农户不仅是农业生产活动最基本的组织者、实施者和管理者,又是农业资源和农村环境的保护者和管理者。作为现阶段我国农业和农村基本生产单元和消费单元的农户,其行为通过农户、农村和农业的层层递进关系直接或间接地影响着一个地区农业和农村的持续发展。然而遗憾的是,善于这方面的研究,尤其是农户行为对西藏这一独特地区农业和农村持续发展的研究还未引起人们足够的重视,本文就是在这样的背景下展开的。本文从农户行为的角度对西藏达孜县农业和农村持续发展问题进行了研究。全文共五章,从内容和结构上看,可分为三个部分:第一部分为概述部分,包括第一、第二两章;第二部分为论文的核心部分,包括第三、四两章;第三部分为政策建议部分,包括第五章。第一部分从农户行为和农业、农村持续发展两个方面对国内外在这方面的研究分别进行了概述;概述的内容包括基本概念、基本原理、研究方法和研究内容等。在本部分的最后(即第二章)还对研究区域概况以及本论文的研究目的、方法和意义做了介绍;第三部分,首先采用农业生态学、人类生态学、农业经济学、民族学和社会学相结合的方法分别对农户的投资行为、择业行为、消费行为以及人口流动行为等的特点、形成原因和影响因素做了定量或定性的分析,并对其行为做了客观上的评价,同时提出了作者自己的看法和见解。在此基础上,就农户上述行为对种植业、畜牧业、农村能源、农业资源和农村环境等持续发展的影响做了分析。研究结果表明:达孜县农户行为具有明显的高原特色和民族特色,表现为其行为强烈地受高原环境的制约,并与当地的资源环境条件、社会、经济发展水平相对应,具有明显的从传统农业向现代化农业过渡的痕迹,并带有浓厚的宗教色彩;受农户自身素质、家庭经济状况等的影响,不同农户的行为也各不相同,相应地其收入之间也存在差异;在所有影响农户行为的因素当中,国家和地方政府对农户行为的影响力最大,其次是农户自身的素质和家庭经济状况;总的说来,农户的行为多数是理性的,是有利于农业和农村持续发展的,但个别行为如种植业结构单一,畜牧业牲畜超载,草畜矛盾突出等却引起饲料、燃料和肥料“三料”之间存在尖锐的矛盾,并形成恶性循环,对种植业、畜牧业、农村能源,进而对农业生态系统和农村环境的持续发展产生不利的影响,应及时对农户这些不理智行为进行适当调整,以引导和帮助农户调整现有的种植业和畜牧业结构,改变传统的资源利用方式。为此应加强对农户的文化教育和农业技术培训,提高农业生产中的科技含量,同时国家和地方政府应在资金和农业政策上给予保证和支持;第三部分为论文的最后一个部分,我们在前面分析的基础上提出了一些政策上的建议以引导和帮助农户调整自己的行为,使其更合理、更有利于该县农业和农村的持续发展,同时我们希望这些政策建议能引起有关决策机构的注意。在研究方法上,本文主要采用农户调查的方法,按对称等距抽样原理分别在4个乡8个村中共抽取80个农户进行调查,其中包括4个农业村和4个牧业村,在每村中各调查10户,其中包括3个贫困户,3个富裕户和4个中等户。
英文摘要:        Farmer and Farmer's behaviors play an important role in sustainable agriculture and rural development. Unfortunately, researches regarding farmer's behaviors, especially Tibetan farmer's behaviors and their impacts on sustainable agriculture and rural development were neglected for many reasons in China. Farmer is not merely a producer of food, forage and other agricultural byproducts, but should also be recognized as a steward and manager of valuable agricultural resources and rural environment. Farmer's behaviors affects the progress of sustainable agriculture and rural development directly of indirectly in the following way: farmer's behaviors → rural areas → agriculture. Ecologically, armer's struggling for the expansion of niche accounts for the continuous succession of agroecosystems; Socially, farmer's management, intervention and controlling over agroecosystem directs the orientation and progress of its succession. Based on these assumptions, we conclude that researches concerning farmer's behaviors can provide people with a better understanding of the structure and functioning of agroecosystems, including the energy flow and material flow. In addition, these researches can help policymakers at all levels make ecologically sound agricultural and rural development policies. In this paper, a farmer interview-based research was conducted in Dagze County, which is located to the east of Lhasa City. Finally, some policy recommendations were put forward to help Tibetan farmers adjust their behaviors so that a successful shift towards sustainable agriculture and rural development would be achieved ultimately since sustainable agriculture and rural development doesn't yet exist anywhere in this region. By the approaches of agricultural ecology, agricultural economics, anthropology, sociology and cultural geography, Tibetan farmer's diverse behaviors such as investment behaviors, occupation-selecting behaviors, consumption behaviors and population migration behaviors and their impacts on cropping production, animal husbandry, rural energy development, agricultural resources and rural environment etc. Were studied quantitatively. Furthermore, factors affecting Tibetan farmer's behaviors such as China government's behaviors, local official's behaviors, agricultural policies, market economy (including risk, supply and requirement), farmer's educational level were also analyzed. Our research indicated that (1) Tibetan farmer's behaviors were strongly affected by China government's behaviors, agricultural policies, Tibetan Buddhism and farmer's educational level, (2) Tibetan farmer's behaviors were distinctive for their unique ethical characteristics and plateau characteristics, and (3) most of Tibetan farmer's behaviors were positive and adapt to local agricultural resources and social development level and then facilitate sustainable agriculture and rural development, although there also exists intensive contradiction between fuels, forage and fertilizer which was mainly caused by Tibetan farmer's irrational behaviors such as the irrational cropping structure, irrational animal husbandry structure and overgrazing of natural grasslands.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34931
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
刘伟. 农户行为与西藏农业、农村持续发展-以达孜县为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 1999.
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