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题名: 我国主要森林生态系统碳循环研究
作者: 周玉荣
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 1998
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 赵士洞
关键词: 碳循环 ; Carbon cycle ; 碳密度 ; Carbon density ; 碳贮量 ; Carbon storage
中文摘要:       作者广泛收集了近二十年来我国森林生物量生产力、土壤剖面有机质含量、凋落物现存量、年凋落量、凋落物分解等方面的研究资料,以及国内外土壤呼吸的相关资料,把森林作为一个自然的生态系统,从生物自身循环的角度系统地研究了我国森林在全球变化中的地位和作用提供了基础数据。主要得到以下几个方面的研究结果:1、基于上述资料,采用林业部规划院1989-1993年的最新统计的我国不同森林类型的面积(不包括经济林和竹林,台湾省未计入),估算了我国森林生态系统总碳贮量。森林生态系统有机碳库包括植被、土壤和凋落物层三个分室,我国主要森林生态系统的碳贮量为281.16 * 10~8吨,其中植被碳库为62.00 * 10~8吨,占总碳库的22.2%;土壤碳库为210.23 * 10~8吨,占总碳库的74.6%;凋落物层的碳贮量为8.92 * 10~8吨,占总量的3.2%。我国森林生态系统碳贮量由大到小的顺序是:落叶阔叶林、暖性针叶林、常绿和常绿落叶阔叶林、云冷杉林、落叶松林、硬叶常绿阔叶林、温性针叶林、针叶和针阔混交林、阔叶红松林、热带林、樟子松林,前5类森林碳贮量占总贮量的87%,是我国森林主要的碳库。2、分析了我国森林生态系统各个分室的碳密度特点。我国森林生态系统的平均碳密度是258.83t/ha,基本趋势是随纬度的增加而增加。其中植被的平均碳密度是57.07t/ha,随纬度的增加而减小;土壤碳密度约是植被碳密度3.4倍,其区域特点与植被碳密度呈相反趋势,随纬度升高而增加,作者根据所选117个样本建立了土壤有机碳密度与水热因子的模拟方程;凋落物层平均碳密度是8.21t/ha,随水热因子的改善而减小。这些结果为研制森林生态系统仿真模型提供了基础。3、分析了我国森林生态系统的主要碳平衡通量,对中国森林生态系统的碳源与碳汇作初步评价,为减缓我国二氧化碳排放提供理论基础。结果表明我国森林生态系统在与大气的气体交换中表现为碳汇,年通量为4.80 * 10~8吨C/年。基本规律是随纬度的升高,即从热带向寒带,碳汇功能下降,这取决于系统碳收支的各个通量之间的动态平衡;阔叶林的固碳能力大于针叶林。4、初步评价了我国森林生态系统在碳循环中的作用。我国生物物质燃烧、化石燃料燃烧、人口呼吸每所释放的总碳量为9.87 * 10~8吨/年,而我国森林生态系统可以吸收其中的48.7%。
英文摘要:
      Based on the published data regarding the forest biomass productivity、the organic carbon content of soil profile、the annual litter weight、the litter decomposition、soil respiration etc. of Chinese major forest types, the regional characteristics of the carbon storages and the carbon dioxide fluxes of Chinese major forest ecosystems was studied from the points of internal biological cycle. The results are as follows: 1. With the recent area data of various forest type, excluding the economic forests and bamboo forests, and forest in Taiwan, provided by the Ministry of Foresty in 1989-1993, the total carbon storage of Chinese forests was estimated to be 281.16 * 10~8 t. The carbon storage in the vegetation was 62.00 * 10~8 (making up 22.2% of the total of China), the carbon storage in the soil was 210.23 * 10~8t(74.6%), the carbon storage in the litter was 8.92 * 10~8t(3.2%). The order of the carbon storage of various forest types was: the decidous broadleaved forests>the warmer temperate coniferous forests>the evergreen/evergreen-dedidous broadleaved forests>the Picea-Abies forests>the Larix forests> the Sclerophyllous broadleaved forests>the temperate coniferous forests>the mixed forests>the Picea koraiensis forests>the tropical forests>the Picea sylvestris forests. And the top five types were the major carbon pool of the forests in China, make up 87% of the total in China. 2. The characteristics of the carbon density of the three chambers (the vegetation pool、the soil pool、the forest litter pool) was analyzed. The average carbon density of Chinese forest ecosystem is 258.83t/ha. The general trend is increasing along with the latitude increasing. Among them the carbon density of the vegetation is 57.07t/ha, showing a contrary trendy of the ecosystem, decreasing along with increasing of the latitude, from the tropical rain forest to the temperate deciduous forest; the carbon density in the soil was as 3.4 times of the vegetation's, and had a similar regional trend of the ecosystem. The author established the hydro-thermal models of the soil organic carbon density of the major forest soil types. The mean carbon density in the litter is the smallest(8.21t/ha), decreasing with improvement of the hydro-thermal conditions. These data will provide the base for the study of the development of the simulation of the physiological modelling in a large scale. 3. The major carbon fluxes for evaluate the carbon budget of Chinese forest ecosystem was analyzed. The net flux between the forest ecosystem and the atmosphere is 4.8 * 10~8t/yr, the Chinese forest ecosystem expresses as a carbon sink when exchanged with the air mass in the atmosphere. Generally the captivity fixing carbon dioxide of the forest from the atmosphere decreased with the increasing of the latitude, from the tropic rain forests to the boreal forests, which is due to the dynamic balance of the forest carbon fluxes. And the deciduous forest fixed carbon dioxide higher than the coniferous forests, The result provided a basic theory for the decreasing of the carbon dioxide emission. 4 The role of Chinese forest ecosystem on the carbon cycle and the biogeochemical cycle was evaluated. In China the forest ecosystem absorbs 48.7% of the carbon from the burnning of biomass matter, fossil fuel and the human respiration (9.87 * 10~8t/yr).
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34933
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
周玉荣. 我国主要森林生态系统碳循环研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 1998.
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