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题名: 红松、蒙古栎遗传多样性的研究
作者: 夏铭
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 1999
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 赵士洞 ; 周晓峰
关键词: 经松 ; RAPD ; 蒙古栎 ; Pinus koraiensis ; 种群 ; Quercus mongolica ; 遗传多样性 ; Population ; 适应 ; Genetic Diversity ; Adaptation
中文摘要:       本研究采用随机扩增多态DNA(PAPD)的方法,对分布于中国境内的三个红松天然种群和四个蒙古栎天然种群的遗传多样进行了研究,并结合形态学和等位酶的研究结果,以及生活史特征、演化历史,对红松、蒙古栎的生态适应性和种群发展潜力进行了探讨。1.从三个红松典型分布区中随机采集了60个个体的幼叶,采用CTAB法提取了基因组DNA,用经过筛选的38个随机引物对所有个体进行了RAPD分析,共获得可重复的位点241个,其中多态位点占57.68%。根据Shannon指数和Nei指数的估测,红松种内的遗传多样性主要分布于种群内。在所研究的红松种群中,凉水种群的遗传多样性水平最高,其他两个种群差异不显著。种群内平均遗传相似度为0.927,种群间为0.845。种群内平均遗传距离为0.073,种群间为0.155。在扩增的产物中,找到一个虎林种群的特异RAPD标记。2.从现有的形态,酶和DNA水平的遗传多样性研究来看,红松种内的遗传多样性在木本植物中的处于中等水平。这种现状与红松在第四纪的冰期所遭受的打击和其自身的生活史特征有很大关系。3.结合红松的遗传多样性水平和自身的生活史、生物学特征,初步认为红松是一个遗传多样性正在缓慢恢复的物种,在适宜的环境中有扩展种群的潜力,但由于其生命周期长的特点,红松遗传多样性的积累需要相当长的时间。人类能否为红松的生存提供有利的生境条件是红松是否能在相当长的时期内稳定存在并进一步扩展的关键。4.在蒙古栎的分布区中,选择四个典型的采集地点,随机采集80个个体的幼叶或芽,提取所有个体的基因组DNA,用筛选出48个随机引物进行RAPD分析,一共检测到344个清晰的、可重复的位点,多态位点占71.22%。通过Shannon指数和Nei指数对蒙古栎遗传多样性的估计,蒙古栎种内遗传多样性主要存在于种群内,种群间有一定的遗传分化。在四个研究的蒙古栎种群中,龙江种群的遗传多样性水平最高,其次为帽儿山种群和虎林种群,黑河种群遗传多样性水平最低。种群内平均遗传相似度为0.904,种群间为0.871。种群内的平均遗传距离为0.096,种群间为0.129。在所有344条谱带中,发现三条谱带为虎林或黑河种群的特异RAPD标记。5.结合蒙古栎形态学、蛋白质和DNA多样性的研究结果进行比较、分析,蒙古栎种内的遗传多样性水平在多年生、异交的木本植物居于中上水平,这对于保持其种群的稳定存在十分有利。6.根据蒙古栎的遗传多样性水平,结合其生活史特征和演化史,认为蒙古栎是一个较为稳定的种,其种内丰富的遗传多样性和对环境较强的适应能力保证了种群的稳定存在和发展。本研究在DNA水平上较为深入地探讨了红松和蒙古栎对生态环境的适应性及种群发展潜力,为深入研究植物对环境的适应机制积累了遗传方面的背景资料,为制订合理的自然资源保护、利用、开发策略提供了依据。
英文摘要:
      In this paper, genetic diversity of three natural populations of Pinus koraiensis and four natural populations of Quercus mongolica in China was studied with the method of random amplified poly-morphic DNA (RAPD). Combining with the results of morphology and allozyme research, life history and evolution history, we discussed ecological adaptation and development potential of population of Pinus koraiensis and Quercus mongolica. 1. Young needles of 60 trees of Pinus koraiensis were collected randomly from three typical areas. Genomic DNA of total individuals were extracted using developed CTAB method. RAPD analysis of these trees was conducted with 38 selected random primers. In these amplfications, 241 repeatable loci were obtained. Percentage of polymorphic loci was 57.68%. According to the measurement of Shannon index and Nei's index, genetic diversity of Pinus koraiensis mainly distributed within population. In the studied populations of Pinus koraiensis, the level of genetic diversity in PLS was the highest, that of PHL and PHH were nearly same. The average genetic similarity within populations was 0.927, that among populations was 0.845. The average genetic distance within populations was 0.073, that among populations was 0.155. A special RAPD band of PHL was found in amplified products. 2. According to the research of genetic diversity on morphology, allozyme and DNA, genetic diversity of Pinus koraiensis was on middle level among the woody plants. This situation was largely connected with the serious attack suffered by Pinus koraiensis during glacier of the Quaternary period and the characteristic of its life history. 3. Combining with the level of genetic diversity, the characteristic of life history and biology, we primarily concluded that pinus koraiensis was a species whose genetic diversity was in a slow process of recovery. In suitable environment, Pinus koraiensis had the potential to enlarge its populations. But the accumulation of genetic diversity of Pinus koraiensis needed a long period because of its long life cycle. the most important factor affecting the existence and development of Pinus koraiensis in a long period was the environment condition provided by human being. 4. Young leaves or buds of 80 individuals of Quercus mongolica were collected randomly from four typical sites in its distribution area. AFter the extraction of genomic DNA, all of these individuals were analysed with RAPD using 48 random primers. In the 344 clear and repeatable loci, polymorphic percentage was 71.22%. Using Shannon index and Nei's index to calculate genetic diversity, we found that genetic diversity of Quercus mongolica mainly occurred within populations. In the four studied populations of Quercus mongolica, the level of genetic diversity of OLJ was the highest, that of OHH was the lowest, and that of OSZ and OHL were the middle. the average genetic similarity within populations was 0.904, that among populations was 0.870. The average genetic distance within populations was 0.096, that among populations was 0.129. In the total bands, three of them were found to be special bands of OHL or OHH. 5. Analysing with genetic diversity on morphology, allozyme and DNA, we concluded that the level of genetic diversity of Quercus mongolica was on upper middle among perennial, cross-pollinated woody plants. This was benefit to the existence of the populations of Quercus mongolica. 6. Combining with genetic diversity, life history and evolution history of Quercus mongolica, we thought that Quercus mongolica was a steady species. Its abundant genetic diversity and strong adaptation ability to environment assured the steady existence and development of populations. This study deeply discussed ecological adaptation and developing potential of population of Pinus koraiensis and Quercus mongolica, accumulating genetic material for the study on adaptation mechanism of plant. Meanwhile, it also provided scientific basis for protection and exploitation of natural resources.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34934
Appears in Collections:环境化学与生态毒理学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
夏铭. 红松、蒙古栎遗传多样性的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 1999.
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