中国科学院生态环境研究中心机构知识库
Advanced  
RCEES OpenIR  > 环境水质学国家重点实验室  > 学位论文
题名: 聚合氯化铝与有机高分子复合絮凝剂的应用基础研究
作者: 石宝友
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 1999
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 汤鸿霄
关键词: 聚合氯化铝 ; polyaluminum chloride ; 有机高分子 ; organic polymer ; 复合絮凝剂 ; composite flocculant ; 形态分布 ; speciation ; 电荷特性 ; electric charge characteristic ; 结构形貌 ; morphology
中文摘要:
      本论文综述了混凝作用基础理论的研究成果以及无机高分子絮凝剂聚合氯化铝(PAC)及其各类复合型絮凝剂的研究和发展现状,并通过对无机高分子和有机高分子凝聚絮凝作用特性的比较,提出了聚合铝与有机高分子进行复合以制备高效能无机-有机复合型絮凝剂(PACP)的新设想,并对这一类型的复合絮凝剂进行了大量较为系统的应用基础研究。首先从不同的角度着手探索了聚合铝与有机高分子复合的可行性,并对影响复合反应的各种因素做了详尽的探讨,结果表明:聚合铝与有机高分子能够以两种不同的方式实现复合,或者将有机高分子引入预制的聚合铝中,或者将有机高分子事先引入铝盐中再进行碱化聚合。复合的难易程度与有机高分子的电荷类型和结构、聚合铝的碱化度和浓度、O/A比、搅拌条件以及复合反应的温度等因素有关。一般地,阳离子型有机高分子与聚合铝的复合反应较为容易进行,而阴离子型或非离子型有机高分子与聚合铝的复合反应则困难得多,它要求必须在聚合铝的碱化度较低、O/A比不大,并且在适当加热和充分搅拌的条件下进行。在对聚合铝与有机高分子复合的可行性研究的基础上,利用多种化学分析方法和现代仪器测试手段,如Al-Ferron逐时络合比色法、~(27)Al-NMR法、FTIR法、流动电流(SC)测定法、激光电泳(EM)测定法、透射电镜(TEM)技术等对实验室制备的几种不同类型PACP的形态分布与转化、结构形貌、电荷特性和吸附特性做了较为深入的综合研究,研究结果表明:1)有机高分子引入到聚合铝中对聚合铝的形态分布产生了一定的影响,影响程度的大小与有机高分子的类型和O/A比有关:阴离子型有机高分子产生的影响大于阳离子型产生的影响,弱阳离子型有机高分子产生的影响大于强阳离子型产生的影响,并且O/A比越大产生的影响也越大。总的来说,在实验研究的范围内,Al_b(或Al_(13))的含量尽管有所降低,但仍是PACP的优势形态;2)聚合铝与阳离子型有机高分子的复合能够明显地增强其电中和能力,而与阴离子型有机高分子的复合对其电荷特性影响较小;3)PACP与聚合铝相比,其聚集体具有较大的尺度和枝化度;4)阳离子型有机高分子与聚合铝的复合产物(PACPc)在颗粒物表面呈单层吸附特征,而阴离子型有机高分子与聚合铝的复合产物(PACPa)在颗粒物表面呈多层吸附的特征。在上述研究的基础上,用混凝烧杯实验验证了PACP的高效凝聚絮凝特征:与PAC相比,PACP具有更高的浊度去除效果、絮凝过程中较快的絮体形成速度和形成的絮体易于沉降等特点。与聚合铝的凝聚絮凝作用机理比较,PACPc在吸附电中和以及粘结架桥作用方面都得到了增强,而PACPa主要在粘结架桥和卷扫絮凝方面得到了增强,并且这种增强作用的发挥是以一定程度的电中和为前提的。综合研究结果表明,PACP是一类新型高效具有良好发展前景的复合高分子絮凝剂。
英文摘要:       A great quantity of literature about the recent achievements on coagulation-flocculation mechanisms and the research progress on inorganic polymer flocculants were reviewed. Based on the comparison of coagulation-flocculation performance between inorganic polymer flocculant(OPF) and organic polymer flocculant, the idea of researching and developing a new type of composite flocculants prepared with polyaluminum chloride and organic polymer(PACP) maybe reasonable. In this paper, a series of applied basic researches on this type of composite flocculants were carried out. The feasibility of combination-PAC with OPF was studied. Several factors influencing the synthetic reaction were discussed. The results showed: the combination of PAC with OPF can be achieved through two methods: (1)OPF was added into preproduced PAC directly; (2)OPF was added into aluminum chloride solution then polymerization was conducted by titration of basic solution. The synthetic process was strongly affected by such factors as: the charge type and the structure of OPF, the basicity(B) and concentration of PAC, O/A ratio, the stirring condition and reaction temperature et al. In general, the combination of anionic or nonionic organic polymer with PAC is more difficult than that of cationic organic polymer with PAC. Not too high B and O/A ratio, sufficient stirring and appropriate heating are necessary for the synthetic reaction of anionic or nonionic polymer with PAC. Based on the feasibility study, some chemical analytical methods and instrumental measuring techniques, such as Al-Ferron timed complexation spectrophotometry, ~(27)Al-NMR, FTIR, Steaming Current(SC), zeta potential analysis, transmission electron microscope(TEM) et al, were used to study the speciation, electric charge characteristics, morphology, adsorption properties of several types of PACP prepared in our laboratory. The results showed: 1) the addition of OPF into PAC caused some influences on the speciation of PAC, the influencing degree which was relative to the charge type and charge intensity of OPF was: anionic organic polymer(AOP) higher than cationic organic polymer(COP), and weak COP higher than strong COP Moreover, the higher the O/A ratio is, the stronger the influence is. Generally speaking, in our researches, although the content of Al_b(Al_(13)) is decreased to some extent, it is still the dominant species. 2) The charge neutralizing ability of PAC can be greatly improved by the combination with COP; however, the combination of PAC with AOP can hardly affect the electric characteristics of PAC. 3) Compared to PAC, the aggregating clusters of PACP are larger in size and more branched. 4) PACP prepared with PAC and COP(PACPc) are adsorbed in singular-layer form on kaolinite particle surface, however, PACP prepared with PAC and AOP(PACPa) are adsorbed in multiple-layer form. On the basis of above research, jar test was used to verify the high coagulation-flocculation effectiveness of PACP: compared to PAC, PACP are more effective in turbidity removal; the aggregates can be formed more rapidly by PACP; and the aggregates produced by PACP are easier to settle. The coagulation-flocculation mechanisms of PACP are supposed to be as follows: as to PACPc, both charge neutralizing ability and bridging ability are highly improved; as to PACPa, the improvement on coagulation-flocculation efficiency is mainly due to the high abilities of bridging among particles and sweeping little particles on the condition that particles are neutralized to certain extent.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34935
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

Files in This Item:
File Name/ File Size Content Type Version Access License
聚合氯化铝与有机高分子复合絮凝剂的应用基础研究.pdf(14324KB)学位论文--限制开放 联系获取全文

Recommended Citation:
石宝友. 聚合氯化铝与有机高分子复合絮凝剂的应用基础研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 1999.
Service
Recommend this item
Sava as my favorate item
Show this item's statistics
Export Endnote File
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[石宝友]'s Articles
CSDL cross search
Similar articles in CSDL Cross Search
[石宝友]‘s Articles
Related Copyright Policies
Null
Social Bookmarking
Add to CiteULike Add to Connotea Add to Del.icio.us Add to Digg Add to Reddit
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 
评注功能仅针对注册用户开放,请您登录
您对该条目有什么异议,请填写以下表单,管理员会尽快联系您。
内 容:
Email:  *
单位:
验证码:   刷新
您在IR的使用过程中有什么好的想法或者建议可以反馈给我们。
标 题:
 *
内 容:
Email:  *
验证码:   刷新

Items in IR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

 

Valid XHTML 1.0!
Copyright © 2007-2018  中国科学院生态环境研究中心 - Feedback
Powered by CSpace