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题名: 新型高效聚合铝硅复合絮凝剂的研制和应用
作者: 宋永会
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 1999
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 栾兆坤
关键词: 聚合铝硅复合絮凝剂 ; polymeric alumminim--silica flocculant ; 制备工艺 ; preparation technology ; 形态分布及电动特性 ; speciation and electrokinetic characteristics ; 低温低浊水处理 ; treatment of water with low turbidity and low temperature
中文摘要:       本论文在全面详细论述近年来铝硅复合凝剂发展及应用的基础上,对聚合铝硅复合型絮凝剂的制备条件、工艺参数以及各种影响因素进行了大量实验研究。运用多种现代仪器分析手段和混凝试验对不同碱化度、不同硅铝比的聚合铝硅絮凝剂进行了多方面的研究。在此基础上,成功地研制开发了达到商业化浓度的稳定性高效聚合铝硅复合型絮凝剂,申请发明专利2项并付诸于生产实践。论文主要研究成果如下:1、全面系统地研究了硅酸活化聚合-复合法制备聚合铝硅絮凝剂的工艺技术条件、复合配比参数。对活化硅酸浓度、聚合pH值、聚合时间、Si/Al摩尔比等工艺条件和技术参数进行了选择与优化。2、用Ferron逐进络合比色法、~(27)Al核磁共振法、透射电子显微镜法和光子相关谱法对聚合氯化铝硅(PASC)的铝形态结构特征、形态分布和转化规律进行了深入研究。采用流动电流检测和Zeta曜闰测定法研究了PASC的电动特性。研究表明,随B值增大,PASC中铝从单体形态逐渐向聚合形态、凝胶形态转化;随Si/Al比增大,PASC中聚合形态铝(Al_b和Al_(13))减少,凝胶形态铝增多。随B值和Si/Al比增大,聚合物颗粒尺寸增大。电中和能力随B值增大而增强,但随Si/Al摩尔比增大略有下降。3、采用混凝烧怀试验对PASC的混凝性能进行了系统的研究,并在高效混凝集成化系统上进行了低温氏浊水处理的动态试验。研究表明,在PASC具有比PAC更优的混凝效能,B值和Si/Al摩尔比增大,PASC的混凝效能提高,尤其是在混凝沉淀处理系统中,新型高效PASC絮凝剂对低温低浊水具有良好的处理效果。4、研究了PASC的凝聚絮凝作用机制,表明首先是高电荷的聚合态Al_b(包括Al_(13))对胶体颗粒产生强烈的吸附/电中和脱稳作用,随后高分子量的硅酸聚合物和铝的聚合物迅速对脱稳胶体颗粒产生粘附架桥,导致其快速絮凝生成粗大絮体。5、在上述应用基础研究的导向下,成功地研制开了稳定的新型高效聚合铝硅复合絮凝剂,并将其应用于生产实践。
英文摘要:       The purpose of the dissertation is to study the preparation technology of novel and high-effective composite Polymeric Aluminum-Silica Flocculants, and apply them to water treatment. The preparation technology for Polyaluminium Silicate Chloride (PASC) flocculant is as follows: First, Polysilicic Acid (PSA) was prepared by the activation and polymerization of water glass; Second, PSA and Polyaluminium Chloride (PAC) were compounded to synthesize PASC. The technology parameters such as the concentration, the pH value and the polymerization time of PSA, and the Si/Al molar ratio were chosen and optimized. Novel, high-effective and stable PASC with commercial concentration, and PASC with low concentration suitable for fundamental study were prepared. The Al-Ferron timed complexation spectrophotometry, ~(27)Al Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) were applied to the studies on the characteristics and structure of Al species, the speciation of PASC flocculant. The Streaming Current Detector and Zeta Potential Analyzer were applied to the study on the electrokinetic characteristics of PASC. With the increasing of Basicity (B value), Al species of PASC gradually transformed from monomuclear species to polymer, till gel species. With the increasing of Si/Al molar ratio, the polymeric aluminum decreased a little and the gel species increased. The volume of the polymeric particles increased with the increasing of B and Si/Al molar ratio. The charge neutralizing ability of PASC increased with the increasing of B value, and decreased a little with the increasing of Si/Al. The coagulating properties of PASC were systematically tested by jar tests. Using PASC as coagulant, the dynamic tests for the treatment of water with low turbidity and low temperature were practised in the high-effective coagulation integrated system. It was found that PASC had more excellent coagulating properties than those of PAC did, and the coagulating properties of PASC improved with the increasing of B and Si/Al. In the high-effective coagulation integrated system, especially in the coagulation -- sedimentation process, PASC were much more effective for the treatments of water with low turbidity and low temperature. The coagulation mechnism of PASC can be described as follows: Polymeric aluminum species Al_b (including Al_(13)) greatly neutralized the negative charge of the colloidal particles by adsorption/charge neutralization. Then the hydrolytic polymeric silica and aluminum species swiftly bridged the destabilized colloidal particles together. Flocculation occurred and the flocs increased to large flocs.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34936
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
宋永会. 新型高效聚合铝硅复合絮凝剂的研制和应用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 1999.
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