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题名: 于桥水库流域农业非点源污染评价——以P元素流失为例
作者: 张淑荣
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2002
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 陈利顶
关键词: 农业非点源污染 ; Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution ; P指数 ; P Index ; 关键源区 ; CSAs ; 聚类分析 ; Clustering Analysis ; 地理信息系统 ; GIS
其他题名: Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Assessment in Yuqiao Reservoir Watershed A Case Study of P Loss
中文摘要:       水资源短缺和水污染问题将成为21世纪全球资源环境的首要问题.严重制约着现代社会经济的可持续发展.农业非点源污染以其危害的普遍性和长期性成为继点源污染之后又一重要的水环境问题.受到了各学科研究人员的广泛关注.该研究以于桥水库流域为例,运用地理信息系统(GIS),野外调查和统计分析等方面,通过建立指标体系,对于桥水库流域和典型小流域进行了农业非点源P污染危险性评价,并此基础上,进行了P污染控制区划研究.
英文摘要:       It is predicted that water resources shortage and pollution are the leading global environmental problems, which have seriously impeded the modern social and economic sustainable development. Agricultural nonpoint source pollution, due to its universality, is becoming another important water pollution after point source pollution, and more and more researchers from all kinds of disciplines are paying the most extensive attention to the problem. In this paper, Yuqiao Reservoir Watershed was selected as the case study area for the risk assessment of P loss from agricultural lands by introducing a P index system with the aid of integrated methods of GIS, field investigation and statistics analysis. Based on the assessment, P loss control zoning was conducted, and the results are as follows: 1. At the scale of the whole watershed, the regions with relatively high risk of P loss are limited, known as Critical Sources Areas, CSAs, which are always located beside the streams, where most high or relatively high soil available P or fertilizer P application rate, or intense soil erosion are observed. Because P loss is affected by many factors, the regions with intense soil erosion and the regions with high-risk possibility of P loss are not always identical. Only when high-risk source factors such as high soil available P, high Fertilizer P application rate and high-risk transportation factors such as intense soil erosion, short distance to the streams, appear at the same region, can the high-risk areas of P loss be observed. Regarding the P loss risk assessment at the scale of typical sub-watershed, CSAs of P loss are mostly located beside the streams, characterized as strips or small patches. Among those areas, orchards with high fertilizer P application rate are the common landuse types, while the areas with medium risk of P loss are croplands and chestnut woodlands, which are located beside the streams. Since no fertilizer P is applied, woodlands, shrublands and grasslands, are in the low risk of P loss. By comparing and analyzing the risk assessment results of P loss at the scale of the whole watershed and the typical sub-watershed, it was found that: (1) The areas with the highest or relatively high risk of P loss must be the areas with the concurrence of high-risk transport factors and high-risk source factors; (2) When the study scale differs, the dominant factors affecting P loss vary; (3) At the small scale, the factors are classified more specifically. With the scale increasing, some information relative to landuse is difficult to delineated out in details on the thematic map, such as vegetation cover and fertilizer application etc. Especially for some important "source" landscape types such as chestnut woods and orchards, due to its small size, it is easily ignored on the thematic map in large scale. The loss of such information will have a great effect on the accuracy and verity of the spatial distribution and quantification assessment of agricultural nonpoint source pollution. However, the study in the scale of sub-watershed can not reflect its importance relative to the whole region and its contribution to the targeted water body. Consequently, it is better to make the risk assessment of P loss firstly at the larger scale, then at the smaller scale, such as sub-watershed. Further study should be developed in the sub-watershed, including investigating the sources of pollutant in the CSAs, identifying the key factors affecting P loss and advancing corresponding management and control practices. Based on the risk assessment of P loss, clustering analysis for control zoning are conducted taking 28 sub-watersheds as units. According to the clustering result, 28 sub-watersheds are classified as 4 groups and corresponding control practices are suggested according to their pollution characteristics, which are expected to provide a scientific foundation for effectively control and management of P from agricultural lands.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34941
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
张淑荣. 于桥水库流域农业非点源污染评价——以P元素流失为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2002.
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