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题名: 汉阳地区城市降雨径流污染过程与控制措施研究
作者: 李立青
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2007
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 尹澄清
关键词: 城市降雨径流污染 ; urban stormwater runoff pollution ; 初期冲刷 ; first flush ; 污染来源 ; pollutant sources ; 7Be/210Pb ; 7Be/210Pb ratio ; 合流制排水系统 ; combined sewer system ; 管理措施 ; management
其他题名: Urban stormwater runoff pollution process and control solutions in Hanyang City
中文摘要:       随着我国城市化进程的加速发展,在点源污染收集、处理不断完善情况下,由城市地表径流产生的非点源污染对水环境的影响正日益凸现,成为水体污染的重要来源,本文选择长江中下游,水网密布、水体富营养化严重、正处于快速城市化的武汉市汉阳地区,通过连续3年对城市降雨径流水量、水质的监测,结合环境地球化学方法和天然同位素示踪技术,对3个不同尺度城市流域降雨径流污染过程、成因及形成机制,降雨径流污染对水环境的影响,降雨径流污染形成、迁移、转化过程及来源,以及控制措施进行研究。研究结果表明: 1、汉阳地区集水区合流制排水管道城市降雨径流污染物浓度的峰值提前于径流的峰值,初期径流污染严重,具有明显的初期冲刷特征;初期30%径流携带TSS、COD、TN和TP的负荷分别为58.0%、53.4%、43.5%和45.8%。TSS是城市径流污染的主要污染物,是其他污染物的载体,COD、TN和TP的颗粒态比例分别为76%、54%和83%。合流制排水管道全年降雨径流TSS、COD、TN和TP浓度的平均值分别为380 mg /L,275 mg /L,17.1 mg /L和2.32 mg /L。 2、集水区尺度合流制排水管道城市降雨径流输出的TSS、COD、TN和TP分别占总污染负荷的59.4%、 26.3%、11.2、10.1%。墨水湖年降雨径流输入的TSS、COD、TN和TP分别占入湖污染负荷的81.0%、49.9%、24.6%和26.5%。控制城市降雨径流污染,对改善城市水环境质量和实现城市水体生态系统的良性循环具有重要的意义。 3、地表功能、交通流量、土地利用、人口密度以及地表卫生管理水平是引起城市地表径流水质空间分异的主要因素。土地利用对径流污染程度的影响是旧城居民区>一般城区居民区/饮食区>交通商业区>新建区>城市绿地,人口密度高和管理差的旧城区径流污染最重。城市次降雨径流污染负荷与2次降雨间隔时间和径流量具有显著的正相关关系。 4、利用7Be与210Pb复合示踪技术对城市降雨径流污染迁移、转化过程及来源进行研究。城市降雨径流污染从地表形成,在排水系统迁移和传输过程中,污染物浓度升高、污染物颗粒态比例增加、悬浮物的有机质含量增加。城市地表沉积物中7Be/210Pb最高(0.86±0.44), 依次为降雨径流悬浮物(0.63±0.18),雨水口沉积物(0.55±0.31),合流管道沉积物(0.41±0.13)。城市地表和排水管道对降雨径流悬浮物的相对贡献分别为40%和60%,排水管道中的沉积物对地表径流污染的加剧作用不容低估。 5、加强地表卫生的管理力度,加强合流制排水管道沉积物的清理,提高城市垃圾收集管理效率,是城市降雨径流污染源控制的首先途径。汉阳地区的研究表明,充分发挥和利用污水处理厂的优势,构建滞留塘、湿地等生态工程,截流初期10mm径流进行处理,可以减少全年70%的降雨径流污染负荷。
英文摘要:       With the rapid urbanization and continued significant efforts to reduce urban point source pollution in China, diffuse pollution from urban area has become one of the major causes of quality deterioration in receiving waters. The magnitude and nature of storm runoff pollution were investigated in Hanyang City, which is located in the middle reaches of Yangtze River,and most of the lakes nearby the existing urban area are suffered from serious eutrophication and oxygen depletion. Storm runoff water quality and quantity were monitored at six urban catchments and 14 surface sites characterized by different land use during the period form 2003 to 2006. Urban stormwater runoff pollution process, pollution loading to receiving waters, and its factors were studied. At the same time, the natural radionuclides, 7Be and 210Pb, were used as tracers to identify urban stomwater runoff pollutant sources and formation mechanism. The main research results are as follows: 1. The pollutant peaks preceded the flow peaks in the all monitored storm events. The averaged fractions of pollution load transported by the initial 30% of runoff volume were 58.0% for total suspended solids (TSS), 53.4% for chemical oxygen demand (COD)、43.5% for total nitrogen (TN) and 45.8% for total phosphorus (TP), respectively. The loads of COD, TN, and TP from storm runoff were dominated in particulate form, with the percentages of 76, 54 and 83, respectively. The averaged event mean concentrations (EMCs) of stormwater runoff were 380 mg TSS/L, 275 mg COD/L, 17.1 mg TN/L, and 2.32 mg TP/L, which represent the magnitude of the pollution during the full events. 2. Stormwater runoff from the three monitored catchments produces for 59.4%、 26.3%、11.2、10.1% of the annual load of TSS, COD, TN, and TP, respectively. Urban diffuse pollution contributes 81.0, 49.9, 24.6, and 26.5% of the annual load of TSS, COD, TN, and TP to the receiving water body, Moshuihu Lake, respectively. It suggests that urban storm runoff pollution control may be an important part of pollution mitigation plans for improving urban water environment quality. 3. Urban surface function, traffic volume, land use, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial heterogeneity of urban surface runoff quality. The highest magnitude of urban surface runoff pollution was expected in the old urban residential area, followed by general residential with restaurants, commercial and transport area, new developments and green land. The urban stormwater runoff pollution loads were positively correlated to the antecedent dry weather days and runoff volume, which are the most important hydrological variables controlling the individual event pollution loading. 4. The 7Be / 210Pb ratio was used as an indicator to identify sediment transport and potential sources from urban ground and combined sewer. The suspended solids and associated pollutants concentrations, and the ratio of volatile suspended solids to total suspended solids significantly increased during the stormwater runoff from urban ground to combined sewer networks. The highest values of the 7Be/210Pb ratio were observed in the urban ground sediments (0.86±0.44), followed by storm drain sediments (0.55±0.31), and combined sewer sediments had the lowest ratios (0.41±0.13). The 7Be/210Pb ratios (0.63±0.18) in the suspended solids lay within the range among the values of ground sediments, storm drain sediments, and combined sewer sediments. The relative contributions of urban ground sediments and drainage sediments to suspended solids were 40±12% and 60±12%, respectively, calculated by the 7Be/210Pb ratios. The magnitude of urban stromwater runoff pollution was intensified during its transport in drainage system due to the erosion of combined sewer sediments. 5. Source controls including improving street sweeping practice, drainage system sediments management, and garbage and litter disposal are firstly implemented as the most effective measures to reducing the urban stormwater runoff pollution loads in Hanyang City. Storage of the first 10 mm runoff for treatment could reduce more than 70% of the total suspended solids load in combined flow. A combined treatment system of a storm tank and a detention pond or wetland was preferentially recommended to store and treat the required stormwater volume with high pollution and flow loads.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34948
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
李立青. 汉阳地区城市降雨径流污染过程与控制措施研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2007.
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