中国科学院生态环境研究中心机构知识库
Advanced  
RCEES OpenIR  > 水污染控制实验室  > 学位论文
题名: 紫外光接枝改性聚丙烯聚砜高分子材料及其应用
作者: 吴琳琳
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2007
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 吴光夏
关键词: 紫外光接枝 ; 表面改性 ; 熔喷聚丙烯纤维滤芯 ; 聚砜膜 ; 亲水性膜 ; 功能性膜 ; 纳滤膜
中文摘要:       利用紫外光接枝方法对高分子材料进行表面改性以其反应条件温和、易于控制、设备简单等优点受到广泛重视。本文围绕紫外光接枝改性技术,实施了其在微滤、超滤、纳滤三个级别的过滤介质改性中的应用,表明紫外光接枝技术对不同级别过滤介质的改性均具有重要的实际应用意义。 本文利用动态法光接枝首次对聚丙烯纤维滤芯进行亲水性改性。实验表明:当[BP]=0.06mol/L,[AAm]=2.0mol/L,光照40 min,反应温度为60℃,其接枝率为1.15%,水通量最高提高17%。采用丙烯酸为单体,当[AA]=0.5mol/L,[BP]=0.06mol/L,反应温度60℃,光照时间80min,溶液从滤芯外层向内层流动,其接枝率为2.48%,水通量最高提高26%。将滤芯用于六味地黄口服液生产新工艺中的预处理过程,接枝改性后的滤芯与未接枝的相比,具有更好的抗污染性能;与纸浆预处理方式相比,滤芯预处理能够更好地去除药液中引起膜污染的物质,减轻后续膜过滤的压力。 本文以AAm和NVP为单体对聚砜超滤膜(截留分子量3万)进行功能性接枝,以接枝后的膜对黄酮物质的分离效果。实验表明:不同的单体接枝条件不同。采用AAm接枝的条件为单体浓度3%,光照时间300s,采用NVP接枝的条件为单体浓度7%,光照时间360s;采用AAm+NVP(1:1)接枝的条件为单体浓度为3%,光照时间为240s。将三种接枝膜用于分离总黄酮,结果表明:接枝 NVP膜使黄酮的浓度由原来的3.35g.L-1上升到5.03g.L-1。AAm+NVP接枝膜使黄酮浓度由原来的3.35g.L-1升到4.68 g.L-1。AAm接枝膜使黄酮浓度由原来的3.35g.L-1升至4.42 g.L-1。而截留分子量为6千的膜对黄酮的截留作用不明显,黄酮浓度最终为3.58g.L-1。接枝膜孔径的改变以及其表面功能的功能基团是其对黄酮截留作用增强的原因。 本文采用静态法光接枝的方法,以丙烯酸为单体,将聚砜超滤膜(截留分子量1万)改性为对盐溶液有一定截留作用的纳滤膜。实验还考察了加入异丙醇作为链转移剂对纳滤膜性能的影响。结果表明,异丙醇的加入提高了纳滤膜的通量,并可以通过加强接枝条件来提高截留率。最终的结果表明:当AA浓度为10%,光照时间为10min,加入连转移剂的接枝膜对NaCl盐溶液的离子表观截留率为39.63%,对Na2SO4盐溶液的离子表观截留率为82.05%,对MgSO4盐溶液的离子表观截留率为90.45%。而此时的膜通量在0.8MPa的压力下分别为9.54L/m2.h,8.34L/m2.h和7.09L/m2.h
英文摘要:       Surface modification of macromolecular material can be achieved by UV-assisted grafting technology. The reactions get much more attention as they have the characteristics of mild reaction condition, easily controlled and simple equipment. The paper includes the applications of UV-grafting technology in the macromolecular material of three kinds--microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration. It shows that the UV-grafting technology possess the important practical significance in the different kinds of filter media. The hydrophilic modification of melt-blown polypropylene filter element can be realized by UV-assisted grafting of hydrophilic monomer by dynamic method. The water flux increased by 17% and the degree of grafting was 1.15% with BP (0.06mol/L), acrylamide (2.0mol/L), irradiation time (40min), reaction temperature (60 ℃). Further studies showed that the water flux of filter element can be increased by 26% with BP (0.06mol/L), acrylic acid (0.5mol/L), irradiation time (80min), reaction temperature (60 ℃) and the flow way of from the outer layer to the inner. The modified filter element existed higher anti-fouling capacity than unmodified one when used in the pretreatment of LiuWeiDiHuang oral liquid. By the static technique, the polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane(molecular weight of cut-off 30000) was UV-modified with functional monomers to separate the total flavonoids in Abelmoschus manihot(L.)medik. The modification experiment showed that to achieve the certain pore diameter, the grafting conditions of AAm, NVP, AAm+NVP were AAm 3%,irradiation time 300s, NVP 7%, irradiation time 360s, AAm+NVP 3%, irradiation time 240s. The separation experiment showed that the concentration of the total flavonoids in the residual increased from 3.35g.L-1 to 4.42g.L-1 for AAm-modified membrane, from 3.35g.L-1 to 4.68g.L-1 for NVP+AAm-modified membrane, and from 3.35g.L-1 to 5.03g.L-1 for NVP-modified membrane. The effect of the hydrogen bond between the functional polymer and the total flavonoids and the pore diameter of the modified membrane result in the strong separating efficiency. By the static technique, hydrophilic nanofiltration membranes with good retention to bivalent salt were prepared by graft polymerization of acrylic acid onto the surface of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane (molecular weight of cut-off 10000). The influence of isopropanol as transfer agent on the performance of nanofiltration membrane was studied. The result showed that the presence of isopropanol was in favor of membrane permeation increase. Although the retention of salts decreased a little, it could be improved by strengthening grafting conditions. The result showed that the modified membrane had the 39.63% retention ratio of NaCl, 82.05% retention ration of Na2SO4 and 90.45% retention ratio of MgSO4. The flux of the salts solution were 9.54L/m2.h,8.34L/m2 and 7.09L/m2.h, respectively.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/34950
Appears in Collections:水污染控制技术研究室_学位论文

Files in This Item:

There are no files associated with this item.


Recommended Citation:
吴琳琳. 紫外光接枝改性聚丙烯聚砜高分子材料及其应用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2007.
Service
Recommend this item
Sava as my favorate item
Show this item's statistics
Export Endnote File
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[吴琳琳]'s Articles
CSDL cross search
Similar articles in CSDL Cross Search
[吴琳琳]‘s Articles
Related Copyright Policies
Null
Social Bookmarking
Add to CiteULike Add to Connotea Add to Del.icio.us Add to Digg Add to Reddit
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 
评注功能仅针对注册用户开放,请您登录
您对该条目有什么异议,请填写以下表单,管理员会尽快联系您。
内 容:
Email:  *
单位:
验证码:   刷新
您在IR的使用过程中有什么好的想法或者建议可以反馈给我们。
标 题:
 *
内 容:
Email:  *
验证码:   刷新

Items in IR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

 

Valid XHTML 1.0!
Copyright © 2007-2018  中国科学院生态环境研究中心 - Feedback
Powered by CSpace