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题名: 典型区域持久性有机污染物污染特征研究
作者: 李科
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2010
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 徐晓白 ; 傅珊
关键词: 有机氯农药 ; 多溴联苯醚 ; 土壤 ; 空间分布 ; 室内灰尘
中文摘要:       本文系统地研究了典型区域中典型持久性有机污染物(有机氯农药和多溴联苯醚)的污染特征,该工作为研究POPs的环境分布规律和污染源解析打下一定基础,为了解我国POPs的污染现状、环境行为以及污染源治理提供了基础性数据。主要研究结果如下: 一,优化了多种环境介质中有机氯农药(OCPs)的检测方法,该方法可同时检测23种OCPs。该方法参加了联合国环境署组织的国际实验室间的比对实验,测定结果在比对结果的置信区间内。国际比对实验结果证明该分析方法完全满足目前国际上通行的有机氯农药分析的要求。用该方法分析了我国土壤样品中23种OCPs的含量,研究了OCPs在我国表层土壤中的污染状况、分布特征和可能来源。研究结果表明,我国土壤样品中普遍存在OCPs污染,总浓度范围0.10-3.5×103ng/g,最主要的污染物是DDTs和HCHs。其它几种OCPs在我国土壤中的检出率或检出浓度比较低,基本没有污染。DDTs主要来源于历史使用,也有部分地区存在新的DDT污染源,三氯杀螨醇的使用也是我国某些地区土壤中DDTs的一个重要来源;HCHs主要是来自于工业HCHs和林丹的混合污染;其它有机氯农药都主要来源于历史使用或大气沉降。 二,研究了多溴联苯醚(PBDEs)在我国山西省太原市和临汾市的表层土壤中的分布规律以及污染现状,从而揭示了PBDEs在典型城市区域土壤环境中的分布特征及其主要污染来源。土壤是PBDEs的一个重要的源和汇,而在我国有关PBDEs在土壤中的污染状况和分布特征等方面的研究还很少,特别是典型工业城市土壤中的PBDEs污染状况还未见报道,因此选择了太原市和临汾市作为研究的典型区域。在太原市和临汾市的表层土壤中均存在不同程度的PBDEs污染。PBDEs在太原市表层土壤中的总浓度为0.02-2.1×102 ng/g,PBDEs在临汾市表层土壤中的总浓度为0.06-1.4×102 ng/g,最主要的污染物均为BDE 209。PBDEs在太原市的污染分布呈现北高南低的趋势,在临汾市的污染分布呈现东南部高西北部低的趋势,这与两城市的城市布局和工业区分布相关。PBDEs同系物分析和主成分分析揭示了两城市表层土壤中PBDEs的污染主要来源于Deca-BDEs工业产品的广泛使用。 三,研究了PBDEs在城市室内灰尘中的污染状况。使用PBDEs作为阻燃剂的产品主要用于室内,而PBDEs易吸附于颗粒物之上,所以室内灰尘的污染对公众健康有直接的影响,增加了人们通过吸入和皮肤接触而暴露于PBDEs的风险。初步研究了我国某百万人口大城市的室内灰尘中PBDEs的污染现状,并初步探讨了PBDEs通过灰尘对城市居民的暴露风险。采集了5种不同功能室内环境的室内灰尘样品,对样品中42种PBDEs进行了分析检测。PBDEs的总浓度为1.4×102-1.3×103 ng/g,最主要的污染物是BDE 209。PBDEs在室内灰尘中的污染比在城市表层土壤中严重。PBDEs在室内灰尘中的污染与PBDEs作为阻燃剂在室内的广泛使用密切相关。灰尘中PBDEs的污染对于城市居民有潜在的健康危害,特别是对于儿童来说,室内灰尘可能是PBDEs暴露的一个重要途径。该工作作为初步探索,虽已取得一定结果,但还有待于在以后的工作中进一步深入系统地开展相关工作。
英文摘要:
      Present research is focused on the contamination characteristics of typical persistent organic pollutants (POPs, including OCPs and PBDEs) in typical regions. The pollutants species, concentrations, spatial distributions, and possible sources were discussed to form a scientific basis for contamination status, environmental behavior, and pollution control of POPs in China. Specific contents are described as below: This dissertation optimized a method for simultaneous determination of 23 OCPs in various environmental media. The method has participated the International Intercalibration Study, and the satisfaction results were obtained. The method was used to analyze the samples, investigate the composition, distribution and characterization of OCPs in the soils in China. OCPs were detected in all of the soil samples, the total concentrations of OCPs ranged from 0.10 to 3.5×103 ng/g. DDTs and HCHs were main OCPs. For other OCPs, the detection ratio or concentrations were low. Past use was possibly the main source of DDTs in soil in China, while there may be new source for a few regions,and the use of dicofol was a main source for some regions. HCHs in the soils were mainly derived from an old mixed source of technical HCHs and lindane. Past use and atmospheric deposition were possibly the main sources of other OCPs in soils in China. The composition, distribution and characterization of PBDEs in the soil in two typical industrial cities in China-Taiyuan City and Linfen City were studied in this paper. The main objectives of the present study were to identify the contaminationcharacteristics and possible sources of pollution. Soil is an important reservoir for many POPs including PBDEs. More information about the contamination status, environmental behavior and source of PBDEs in soil is therefore needed to be better understood. However, there is a shortage of data from China, especially typical industrial cities. So Taiyuan City and Linfen City were chosen as the typical regions. Forty-two PBDEs were identified in all of the soil samples in Taiyuan and Linfen City. The total concentrations of PBDEs in the urban surface soil samples in Taiyuan and Linfen ranged from 0.02 to 2.1×102 ng/g and 0.06 to 1.4×102 ng/g,respectively. Of the PBDE homologues, the dominant PBDEs detected was BDE 209. The contamination status of Taiyuan and Linfen was associated with the distribution of town regions and industrial plants. PBDE homologues analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the major source of PBDEs in Taiyuan and Linfen might be potentially associated with the prevalent use of Deca-BDEs as flame retardants. The contamination status of PBDEs in house dust in a mega-city in China was studied in this paper. The produces which used PBDEs as flame retardants are always found in houses. Since PBDEs can easily accumulate on particles, contamination of house dust has a direct impact on public health, increasing the risk of human exposure via inhalation, ingestion or direct skin contact. House dust samples were collected from five different kinds of houses in a mega-city of China. Forty-two PBDEs were analyzed in all of the samples and the total PBDEs concentration ranged from 1.4×102 to 1.3×103ng/g. The dominant PBDEs congener detected in house dust samples was BDE 209. The contamination of PBDEs in house dust was more seriously than that in soil in China. The source of PBDEs contamination was technical PBDEs which were prevalently used as flame retardants in house in China. This study also suggested that there was a potential threat of human exposure to PBDEs for residents of China’s metropolises. Especially for toddlers, house dust was possibly an important exposure route of PBDEs.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35024
Appears in Collections:环境化学与生态毒理学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
李科. 典型区域持久性有机污染物污染特征研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2010.
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