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题名: 二恶英类排放源分析与典型工业城市区域污染研究
作者: 任志远
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2010
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 郑明辉
关键词: 二恶英类 ; 排放清单 ; 人类发展指数 ; 非故意排放类POPs ; 环境空气
中文摘要:       二恶英类是非故意产生类持久性有机污染物(POPs),可在人类活动中作为副产物生成并排放到环境中,对生态环境和人类健康具有潜在危害,近来广受关注。普遍认为从源头控制是解决二恶英类污染问题的最好途径。在国家、区域及全球尺度上对二恶英类的源排放清单进行统计分析,可以为二恶英类的全球环境管理提供基础数据支持,为大尺度下的环境决策提供有力的理论依据,同时,还可促进国家间减排行动的经验和技术交流,为减排行动的成效评估提供参考和依据,具有十分重要的意义。此外,由于目前对我国城市环境空气中的二恶英类监测还比较少,通过对我国典型工业城市潜在工业排放源周边环境中二恶英类的研究,不但可以了解我国城市环境空气中二恶英类的浓度水平,还可以对比工业排放源的理论排放值和对周边环境的实际影响,证实工业排放源与周边污染之间的关系,同时也为二恶英类的环境监测技术提供实践经验。 本研究根据对97个国家排放清单的不完全统计,提出全球二恶英类排放总量可达69 kg TEQ/年以上,国均排放量约为722 g TEQ/年。其中,最大的排放来源是非受控焚烧源,最重要的工业排放源是废弃物焚烧源、金属冶炼源和发电供热源,最重要的排放介质是空气。通过相关分析发现,受控源(Non-UP)排放量与人口、GDP和国土面积都呈一定正相关关系;非受控燃烧源排放量与人口和国土面积呈一定正相关关系,与人均GDP略呈负相关关系。 通过对单位排放负荷的分析,发现多数国家的单位GDP排放量分布在1~100克-毒性当量/年•十亿美元之间,人均排放量分布在1~100克-毒性当量/年•百万人之间。但对于一些已实施初步减排的发达国家,它们的人均排放量为2.5-9.1克-毒性当量/年•百万人,在已统计国家中处于较低排放水平;它们的单位GDP排放量可达0.05-0.26克-毒性当量/年•十亿美元,明显低于其他国家的单位GDP排放水平。这些发达国家经过初步减排,二恶英类排放量削减比例可达90%以上。在减排行动前主要二恶英类排放多为包括废弃物焚烧源和金属冶炼源在内的工业排放源,其中废弃物焚烧源的减排比例一般都能达到95%以上,是这些国家二恶英类排放削减量的主要贡献来源。在初步减排后,分散排放源的逐渐成为这些国家的主要排放源。 在对人均排放量和单位GDP排放量统计研究的基础上,用参数估计的方法建立了全球二恶英类排放估算模型,并首次报道由模型推算出的2004年全球二恶英类排放量为133(119-151) kg TEQ,其中来自Non-UP源的排放量为58.7 (52.2-66.7) kg TEQ,来自UP源的排放量为68.9 (58.5-84.8) kg TEQ。 我国典型工业城市环境空气样品中二恶英类的毒性当量浓度平均为169.9 fg I-TEQ/m3,总体浓度水平高于欧洲环境空气中二恶英类浓度平均值,2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF是毒性当量浓度最重要的贡献来源。按指纹特征图推断,工业源周边环境空气中的二恶英类主要来自于工业源的排放。从对空气中不同粒径颗粒物上的二恶英类浓度比较来看,二恶英类更倾向于富集在细颗粒物上。不同工业排放来源环境空气中二恶英类污染水平:焦化>钢铁冶炼、热力发电>氯碱化工。
英文摘要:       Dioxins (PCDD/PCDFs), with potential risk to ecosystem and human health at trace level, is one of typical unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs). Control on the sources is prevalently seen as the most feasible way to reduce the dioxins in the view of economic reasons. As is an important basis for mastering the general emission status, posing environmental management strategies and taking sound actions to dioxins reduction, it is important to make an intergrated analysis on the national dioxins emission inventories. The dissertation aims to carry out researches on the characterestics of the dioxins emission sources at national and larger spatial scales, which would provide data support for global menvironmental management of the dioxins emissions and theory basis for the establishment of the policy related to dioxins reductions. Furthermore, the researches could promote the exchanges of experience and techniques among the parties. In addition, monitoring on the ambient air near various industrial sources with potential emissions of dioxins was conducted in a typical industrial city of China. This part of work would provide a practical experience on the monitor of the dioxins in the atmospherical urban environment. According to the available statistics of 97 countries, it was proposed in this study that global emissions of dioxins could reach at least 69 kg TEQ /yr, with an average national emission of approximately 722 g TEQ /yr. Moreover, as the three leading industrial emission sources of dioxins, power generation and heating, ferrous and non-ferrous metal production and waste incineration were calculated to contribute 32% to the total emission in all. Besides, about 56% of the total emission is contributed by the uncontrolled combustion processes (UP). Air is the most important acceptor media, which accepts about 51% of the total emission. In terms of the correlations between the dioxins emissions and the national statistical indicators, population and land area could be tentatively suggested to be positive indicators to dioxins emissions. Specially, GDP would roughly be a positive indicator to the emissions from the uncontrolled combustion processes, while GDP per capita would roughly be a negative indicator to emissions from the other sources. It is found for the most countries that, the emissions per unit GDP are ranged from 1 to 100 g TEQ/yr·billion-USD, and the emissions per captia are from 1 to 100 g TEQ /yr·million-people. Some developed countries have achieved a significant reduction on dioxins emissions with the emissions per unit GDP less than 1 g TEQ/ yr·billion-USD. A global emission estimation model was established with the estimated parameters based on the reseach results of the emission per unit GDP and emission per captia. The global emissions of dioxins was calculated to be 133 (119-151) kg TEQ in 2004, and the emissions from Non-UP sources was 58.7 (52.2-66.7) kg TEQ while the emissions from up sources was 68.9 (58.5-84.8) kg TEQ. The result achieved from the prediction model is reported for the first time in this way. The ambient air in vicinity of different industrial sources were sampled in Tangshan City. The TEQ concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs ranged from 44.2 to 394.1 fg I-TEQ/m3 with an average of 169.9 fg I-TEQ/m3. The ratios of ∑PCDF/∑PCDD reached 2.54 on average, suggesting that de novo synthesis in thermal processes played an important role to the airborne pollution of PCDD/PCDFs. The relative ratios of concentrations determined by the two different active sampling methods suggested that the PCDD/PCDFs tended to stay in fine particles. In this study, the atmospheric impacts to the environment from different industrial sources could be ranked as follows from high to low: coking, iron sintering, steel making, power generation and chlorinate alkali chemical production industries.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35026
Appears in Collections:环境化学与生态毒理学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
任志远. 二恶英类排放源分析与典型工业城市区域污染研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2010.
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