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题名: 农牧交错典型地区生态环境脆弱性评估及管理研究
作者: 吴宪
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2010
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 吴钢 ; 栾兆坤
关键词: 生态环境脆弱性 ; 农牧交错区 ; 模糊综合评价 ; 层次分析法 ; 生态恢复
中文摘要:       近年来,生态环境退化成为人们关注的焦点。特别是随着人类活动与人地关系研究的深入,“生态脆弱性”、“脆弱性评估”等的研究受到越来越 多的关注。生态环境脆弱性是其本质特征的综合表现,它既包括生态系统内部结构特点,也涵盖系统外部条件状况,既反映人类活动和外界环境胁迫对生态环境系统的影响,也体现生态环境系统对其的响应。脆弱生态环境的成因较为复杂,农牧交错区具有典型的生态环境脆弱性。 本文通过对生态系统脆弱性的内涵及生态环境脆弱性评估的指标体系进行分析,依据灰色理论和模糊数学,提出了一种从定性到定量转换的综合评价方法,即灰色模糊评估法。该方法是由AHP、灰色关联分析、灰色统计法、模糊评价综合集成而成。文中介绍了其原理和构成方法,并以内蒙古尚都县等为例,对其生态环境脆弱性进行了评价。 本文以我国农牧交错典型地区为例,研究了农牧交错平原地区景观空间格局,对研究区生态环境脆弱性的主要影响因素(包括自然因素和人为因素)进行了分析,通过研究草地植被盖度、种类组成、地上生物量等指标的变化趋势,揭示了农牧交错地区草场沙退化过程及规律。 本文开展了农牧交错区域生态用水试验,研究植被生态系统的水分关系特征。根据试验和资料计算植被(牧草、乔木、灌木)在维持草原生态良性循环的水分条件下的现状生态用水量。 通过生态系统恢复技术试验,研究了围封、灌溉技术的生态系统恢复中的应用。以克什克腾旗为例,选择不同退化程度(轻度退化、中度退化、重度退化)草地为样地,并以同类未围封草地作对照,研究围封措施下,各类退化草地草群组成结构、植被盖度与高度、生物量等恢复情况。轻度退化草地在较短时间内植被就可以得到恢复;中度退化草地围封后需要较长恢复,一般需要5年才可适当进行利用;重度退化的草地围封5年后退化程度有所减轻。北方农牧交错草地主要分布在干旱地区,降水量少,且分布不均。在开发利用水资源的同时,采用节水型灌水方法和技术等措施,提高灌溉水的利用率,将有限的水资源发挥最大的作用,以扩大草场面积,使草场生产潜力达到最大值。 通过分析沙退化草场整治技术措施,依据效益评价的各项指标进行综合评价,从基础效益、生态效益、经济效益、社会效益四方面研究各项整治措施对沙化退化草场生态恢复的影响,总结出科学合理的农牧交错区沙退化土地整治技术措施和最优的措施配置方式。
英文摘要:       Recently, degradation of eco-environment has been paid more attention, especially when researches on human activities and relationship between human and land have been carried out, such as ecological vulnerability, evaluation of frangibility and so on. Eco-environment vulnerability represents the characteristic in nature which include interior structure of ecosystem and exterior environment. It also explains the effects of human activities and exterior environment on ecosystem and its reactions. The cause of vulnerable eco-environment is complex. Agro-pastoral ecotone is the typical eco-environment vulnerable region. According to the grey theory and fuzzy mathematics, a comprehensive method with the conversion from qualitative analysis to quantitative analysis was proposed in this paper on the bases of the researches involving basic connotation of the vulnerability of the eco-environment and its appraisable index systems. This method which comprises AHP, grey correlation analysis, grey statistics and fuzzy judgment is called grey-fuzzy evaluation. This paper discussed its principle and constitutional methods. The paper also took Shandu County which lies in farming-pastoral ecotone for example, and assessed the vulnerability of the ecosystem. Taking the typical agro-pastoral ecotone areas for example, the study of landscape pattern was carried out. The paper also analyzed main factors which affect eco-environment vulnerability. According to the trends of indexes such as vegetation cover, type, aboveground biomass, the paper showed the process and rule of pasture desertification in agro-pastoral ecotone. The study on ecological water usage illuminated water relations of vegetation ecosystem, and calculated ecological water usage of different vegetation types (including grass, arbor and shrub), on condition that could maintain ecological benign circulation of water usage in grass land. The measures of ecosystem restoration were discussed such as enclosing and irritation technique. Taking the different degree of degraded grassland (mild degraded grassland, moderate degraded grassland, and specific weight degraded grassland) for experiment, we calculated the structure of grass group composition, the vegetation height and output of each kind of degraded grassland. The experiment indicated that after enclosing the vegetation of the mild degraded grassland may obtain the restoration in a shorter time, the restoration for moderate degraded grassland need lounger time, generally 5years. Enclosed after five years, the specific degraded grassland have reduces in backlash degree. In our country most of grasses grow in arid regions where less precipitation and uneven distribution have. When we use water resources, we carried out water-saving irrigation that reduced water loss through the utilization of irrigation techniques. We maximized the use of water to expand the area of grassland and improve its production. From basic benefits, ecological benefits, economic benefits, and social benefits, we studied the effects of measures used to ecological restoration of degraded grassland, and we got the rectification technology in agro-pastoral ecotone, and also got the optimal allocation measures.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35043
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
吴宪. 农牧交错典型地区生态环境脆弱性评估及管理研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2010.
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