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题名: 烹饪过程中多环芳烃和氯代芳烃生成与释放特征研究
作者: 惠亚梅
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2010
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 郑明辉
关键词: 多环芳烃 ; 模拟烹饪实验 ; 释放 ; 生成机理 ; 氯代芳烃
中文摘要:       多环芳烃(PAHs)及氯代芳烃化合物(包括PCDD/Fs、PCBs、PCNs和HCB)具有生物累积性和三致毒性效应(致癌、致畸、致突变),广泛的分布于各种食物中。食物中多环芳烃及氯代芳烃除了来自于食物原料的环境污染之外,食物的包装以及炸、烘、烤和熏等高温加工过程也是食物中多环芳烃及氯代芳烃的来源。因此,有必要进行烹饪过程中多环芳烃和氯代芳烃的生成、释放和控制机理的研究。 本文通过实际烹饪和模拟实验相结合,研究了多环芳烃和氯代芳烃的生成与释放特征,主要内容与结果归纳如下: (1) 建立了多环芳烃和氯代芳烃的分析测试方法。同位素稀释气相色谱/质谱法检测多环芳烃和氯代芳烃,其中四类氯代芳烃同步净化。 (2) 研究了木炭和煤气烧烤羊肉串中多环芳烃的含量与分布,发现木炭烤肉中PAHs的含量(>330 ng/g)远大于煤气烤肉中PAHs的含量(约50 ng/g)。烤肉中浓度贡献较高的组分都为2-4环多环芳烃化合物,其中木炭烤肉中它们的浓度贡献顺序为PA>Fl>Pyr>Nap>Ant,而煤气烤肉中多环芳烃化合物浓度贡献顺序为Nap>PA>Acpy>Flu>Fl>Pyr。 (3) 通过模拟烹饪过程中多环芳烃生成与释放特征的研究,发现了温度、烹饪时间和食物中脂肪含量对多环芳烃的生成量、同类物分布和气固分配均有影响,其中温度对多环芳烃生成影响最大。另外,还发现了烹饪温度、时间和食物中脂肪含量对低环与高环多环芳烃生成量、同类物分布和气固分配的影响规律完全不同,并且烹饪中PAHs主要的生成途径可能是低环化合物先生成然后转化为高环多环芳烃。 (4)通过模拟烹饪过程中氯代芳烃生成与释放特征的研究,发现了温度、氯源和某些烹饪器具是氯代芳烃生成的必要条件,温度对氯代芳烃生成的影响最大。即使在氯源和铜制烹饪器具存在时,烹饪过程中也未检测到PCDD/Fs,而PCBs、PCNs和HCB在温度范围为200~300℃的烹饪过程中均有生成。另外,氯源和烹饪器具对烹饪过程中氯代芳烃的生成也有一定的影响。氯源可明显促进烟气中HCB和PCNs生成;铜化合物明显促进烟气中PCNs生成,而铁化合物明显促进HCB生成。另外,还发现了PCNs和PCBs的生成以低氯化合物为主,这两类化合物的产生机理可能为前驱体合成,且先生成低氯化合物,继而转化为较高氯代化合物。PCBs主要分布于食物中,而PCNs和HCB主要分布于烟气中。
英文摘要:       Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) and chlorinated aromatics, including PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs and HCB, are harmful, with biological accumulation and three-cause tardy effects including carcinogenesis, aberration and mutation. They are widely distributed in the foods through various routes such as direct deposition of environmental contaminants from the atmosphere, packaging materials, and the thermal processing of foods with drying, baking, grilling, and smoking. So, it’s necessary to carry out the investigation on the formation, emission, and control mechanism of PAHs and chlorinated aromatics during cooking. In this paper, the formation and emission of PAHs and chlorinated aromatics were investigated by cooking and simulation experiments. The main results are summarized as follows: (1) Analytical methods of PAHs and chlorinated aromatics were established. All pollutants were determined by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and four types of chlorinated aromatics were purified simultaneously. (2) The content and distribution of PAHs in charcoal-grilled meat and gas-grilled meat were investigated. The results showed the total PAH concentrations in charcoal-grilled meat (>330 ng/g) is significantly higher than that in gas-grilled meat (about 50 ng/g). PAHs with two to four rings make the main contribution to total PAHs concentration in two types of grilled meat. The contribution sequence of PAHs in charcoal-grilled meat was PA> Fl> Pyr> Nap> Ant while it was Nap> PA> Acpy> Flu> Fl> Pyr in gas-grilled meat. (3) The formation and emission of PAHs were investigated by simulation experiments. The results showed that cooking temperature, cooking time and fat content in food affected the formation, fingerprint and gas-solid distribution of PAHs. Among them, cooking temperature has the most obvious impact. Three factors tuned the formation trend of high-ring PAHs and low-ring PAHs in different ways. For the formation pathway of PAHs during the cooking process, it was assumed that low-ring PAHs might be firstly produced and then generated high-ring PAHs. (4) Formation and emission of chlorinated aromatics were also investigated by simulation experiments. The results showed that cooking temperature, chlorine source and cooking utensils took the important roles for the formation of chlorinated aromatics. Among them, cooking temperature has the most obvious impact. In the presence of chlorinated compounds and copper utensils, PCBs, PCNs and HCB could be detected from 200℃ to 300℃ while PCDD/Fs didn’t generate within the same cooking temperature range. Chlorine source can significantly promote the formation of HCB and PCNs in gas phase. Copper and iron utensils can obviously induce the formation of PCNs and HCB in gas phase, respectively. In addition, PCNs and PCBs produced during cooking process were dominated by lower chlorinated compounds, and thus the precursor synthesis may be the main formation pathway.Generally, PCBs content in food was much higher than that in gas phase whereas the contents of both PCNs and HCB in gas phase were higher than that in food.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35044
Appears in Collections:环境化学与生态毒理学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
惠亚梅. 烹饪过程中多环芳烃和氯代芳烃生成与释放特征研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2010.
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