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题名: 太阳能驱动一体化氧化沟污水处理系统研究
作者: 韩昌福
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2010
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 刘俊新
关键词: 太阳能 ; 光伏发电 ; 分散污水处理 ; 一体化氧化沟 ; 生命周期成本
中文摘要:       污水处理是能源密集型的综合技术过程,特别是污水生物处理系统的电耗较大,是运行费用的主要支出。高电耗一方面造成了污水处理设施运行成本高,另一方面也加重了能源危机。近年来,国内外均在开发新能源,太阳能被认为是最具前途的新能源之一。光伏发电是当今太阳能发电的主流,一般由太阳能电池板、蓄电池组、控制器和逆变器四部分组成,其中蓄电池的使用寿命短,需定期更换,是太阳能发电系统成本高的主要原因之一。本研究将太阳能发电与污水生物处理技术相结合,根据分散型污水昼夜排放量差异大的特点和污水处理的生物脱氮除磷过程中厌氧、缺氧和好氧反应对氧的需求差异,开发出将厌氧、缺氧和好氧反应过程有机结合并利用太阳能驱动的新型一体化氧化沟污水处理系统。该系统取消了太阳能发电单元中的蓄电池组,可有效降低成本。 对太阳能辐射强度的日周期、月周期、季节周期、以及年周期变化进行了常年监测,明确了太阳能辐射强度的变化规律,确定了用于驱动污水生物处理反应器的太阳辐射强度安全置信区间值以及太阳能电池板面积计算方法,并针对取消蓄电池可能导致太阳能电池板电力输出不稳定的问题,研发出利用太阳能的电量分配与自动控制系统及软件,形成了新的无蓄电池太阳能光伏发电和供电自动分配与控制系统,可自动控制污水处理生物反应器的运行。 研究开发出能够以多种能耗梯度方式运行的一体化双沟环形氧化沟,能够有效利用无蓄电池太阳能光伏系统产生的电力。开展了无蓄电池太阳能光伏系统驱动一体化双沟环形氧化沟处理生活污水的实验室研究,在水力停留时间8h、污泥停留时间20d、MLSS浓度2.311-4.271g/L的运行条件下运行240天,结果表明,无蓄电池独立太阳能光伏系统能够稳定和持续地输出电力,一体化双沟环形氧化沟全自动运行,出水中COD,NH4+-N,TN,TP平均浓度分别为26.8mg/L, 0.77mg/L, 21.2mg/L, 1.1mg/L,其对应的去除率分别为86%,98.7%,69%,82.5%。 研究了利用太阳能驱动的污水生物处理反应器内环境条件与太阳能发电单元昼夜供电周期变化的协同关系,通过优化控制使污水生物脱氮除磷过程与太阳能供电规律相吻合,建立了利用太阳能驱动的一体化氧化沟污水处理系统的优化运行模式。 对太阳能光伏组件进行生命周期评价,与常规独立太阳能光伏系统设计对比,在相同的6小时设计工作时间情况下,本无蓄电池太阳能光伏系统的总成本降低约45.5%。
英文摘要:       Wastewater treatment is an energy-intensive technology and the most of power consumption is caused by biological wastewater treatment system, which is the major expenditure during the wastewater treatment plant running. The high power consumption on the one hand leads to the high operating cost of the wastewater treatment facilities; it also aggravates the energy crisis. In recent years, all the government dedicated to explore new energy resource, and the solar energy is considered as the most promising one. And among ways of the solar energy utilization, photovoltaic (PV) is currently the mainstream. The PV system is mostly constituted with solar PV modules, batteries, charge controller and inverter. Short life cycle of the batteries, which need to be replaced regularly, results in the high cost of the PV system. Furthermore, the high cost of solar photovoltaic applications is still the fatal barrier restricted the application of solar PV. In this study, according to the characteristics of decentralized wastewater during daytime and night and the characteristics of oxygen demand of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic reaction, a new integrated oxidation ditch wastewater treatment system powered with solar PV system is developed. As the sewage treatment process run on an intermittent operation mode, in the PV system, the battery components were removed, which can reduce the capital installation and maintenance costs. On the basis of monitoring and analysis of the daily, monthly, seasonal and annual rhythm of the solar insolation, the law of the solar insolation variation is summarized. Security confidence interval of the solar insolation used to sizing the solar PV modules is determined. And a new sizing method specified to the non-batteries PV system is also developed. The introduction of power distribution and setup control system solve the Discontinuities and unsustainability flaws of the solar PV system, which is cause by the lack of battery components. The introduction of power distribution and setup control system also result in less PV modules with a smaller safety factor, due to the accurate solar PV power output, compared to traditional solar PV system. The introduction of automatic control system makes the whole set of non-battery solar photovoltaic power systems and sewage treatment processes to achieve the fully automated unattended operation. And multi-level power consumption design of the biological treatment system could utilize the power generated by non-battery solar photovoltaic system as much as possible. In this paper, domestic wastewater treatment with the integrated oxidation ditch powered with NON-batteries stand-alone PV system combined with a power distribution and setup control system is studied. The stability and continuity of the NON-batteries stand-alone PV system combined with a power distribution and setup control system is also examined. Under the operating conditions of HRT 8h, SRT 20d, and MLSS concentration of 2.311-4.271g/L, the integrated oxidation ditch automatic running 240 days under the intervention of power distribution and setup control system achieved an average removal rates of 86% COD, 98.7 NH4+-N, 69.0% TN and 82.5%TP, and the corresponding concentrations in the effluent were 26.8mg / L, 0.77mg / L, 21.2mg / L, 1.1mg / L. The synergy of internal environment of the integrated oxidation ditch and the characteristics of the solar PV system during daytime and night is studied. And an optimized operation mode of the integrated oxidation ditch is also established, which matches wastewater biological nutrient removal process with the power output characteristic of the solar PV system. Life cycle cost analysis is carried out between the conventional solar PV system and non-batteries solar system in the same working time of 6h per day. The results show that the solar modules area of the non-batteries solar system reduced 12.5% than that of conventional solar PV system. And in the life cycle of the solar PV system, the total cost of non-batteries solar PV system reduced by 45.5% comparing withbatteries solar PV system.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35049
Appears in Collections:水污染控制技术研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
韩昌福. 太阳能驱动一体化氧化沟污水处理系统研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2010.
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