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题名: 我国典型工业源含溴UP-POPs排放特征及清单研究
作者: 杜兵
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2010
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 郑明辉
关键词: 氯代二恶英类 ; 溴代二恶英类 ; 氯溴代二恶英类 ; 多溴联苯醚 ; 工业热过程 ; 分布特征 ; 排放因子
中文摘要:       多氯代二苯-对-二恶英和多氯代二苯并呋喃(PCDD/F) 是斯德哥尔摩公约要求控制的持久性有机污染物。多溴代二苯对二恶英类和多氯代二苯并呋喃(PBDD/F),氯溴代二苯-对-二恶英和氯溴代二苯并呋喃(PBCDD/F)以及多溴联苯醚(PBDEs)近年来广受关注,被认为是新型的持久性有机污染物(POPs),然而,对这几类新型POPs的工业排放源研究在国际上仅有零星报道,尚缺乏全面系统的研究。 本研究通过对典型工业源排放烟气的研究,调查了不同工业源中PCDD/F,PBDD/F,PBCDD/F以及PBDEs的存在状况及排放特征,探索了PCDD/F,PBDD/F,PBCDD/F以及PBDEs在工业热过程中的生成机制,并首次提出了我国PBDD/F,PCDD/F以及PBDEs在不同工业源中的排放因子,估算了排放清单。主要研究内容如下: 1)建立了基于同位素稀释/高分辨气相色谱/高分辨质谱(HRGC/HRMS)的PCDD/F,PBDD/F,PBCDD/F以及PBDEs同步前处理和分析方法,并进行了方法验证。 2)研究了典型工业源排放设施如生活垃圾焚烧,工业废物焚烧,铁矿石烧结,电弧炉炼钢,再生有色金属冶炼过程(再生铜、铝、铅、锌)中PBDD/F,PCDD/F及PBCDD/F的排放特征,推测了其可能的生成机制。提出工业热过程中PCDD/F以及低溴代的PBCDD/F的生成可能为de novo合成机制,PBDD/F可能由PBDEs等含溴前驱体机制生成,高溴代的PBCDD可能由de novo合成及 PBDD/F 氯化过程共同生成。并提出了使用B/C 比值进行环境空气中的源解析方法及应用实例。 3)在我国首次系统研究了烧结、电弧炉炼钢以及再生有色金属行业中PBDD/F、PBDEs及部分溴代阻燃剂的排放水平及排放特征,提出了这些行业中PCDD/F、PBDD/F、PBDEs及部分溴代阻燃剂的排放速率及排放因子,以2008年为基准年估算了全国各行业UP-POPs的排放总量与范围。提出我国当前已知最主要的UP-POPs排放为铁矿石烧结行业。
英文摘要:
      Inventories and Characteristics of BrominatedUP-POPs Emission from Industrial processes in China DU Bing(Environmental Science) Directed by Professor ZHENG Minghui Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans(PCDD/F) were under the control of the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans(PBDD/F),mixed brominated and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans(PBCDD/F) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs) were considered as candidate UP-POPs and received much attention in recent years. However, very littly is kown about the potential industrial emission sources for these “new” POPs, Further researches were expected to carry out. In this study, the occurrences and characteristics of PCDD/F, PBCDD/F, PBDD/F and PBDEs from various industrial thermal processes were investigated through selected typical facilities. In addition, the possible formation and sources of PCDD/F, PBDD/F, PBCDD/F and PBDEs in these industrial processes were discussed and presented. Further more, the emission rates and emission factors from each process was given based on measured value from selected facilities. Finally, the inventories of investigated Unintentional Produced Persistent Organic Pollutants (UP-POPs) were estimated.The main contents were list as below: The same-sample determination protocols including sampling, extraction, clean-up and instrument analysis of PCDD/F, PBDD/F, PBCDD/F and PBDEs based on Isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS methed were developed and validated. The occurrence and characteristics of 2,3,7,8 substituted polybrominated and polychlorinated dibenzo–p–dioxins and dibenzofurans(PBDD/F,PBCDD/F and PCDD/F) from various industrial thermal processes(HWI, MWI, Cremators, Sinter plant, EAF and secondary metallurgical industry including secondary copper, secondary aluminum, secondary zinc and secondary lead ) were investigated. The results indicated that metallurgic processes could be important sources of PBDD/F. Results indicated that PBDD/F formation was via a brominated precursor mechanism while PCDD/F and lower brominated PBCDD/F(mono and di,up to tri in some cases) were formed throμgh de novo mechanisms. For higher brominated PBCDD/F formation,both de novo mechanism and chlorine–bromine exchange might be involved. Finally,an approach to identify the PBDD/F sources in ambient air by the PBDD/F to PCDD/F ratio was developed. The emission level and characteristics of PBDD/F, PBDEs and some BFRs from sinter plants, electric arc furnaces for steel-making and secondary metallurgical industries were investigated comprehensively for the first time in China. In addition the emission factors from different industries of these UP-POPs were provied and the UP-POPs inventories for industrial sources were estimated with 2008 as reference year.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35054
Appears in Collections:环境化学与生态毒理学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
杜兵. 我国典型工业源含溴UP-POPs排放特征及清单研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2010.
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