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题名: 饮用水自由氯与臭氧或紫外联合消毒技术研究
作者: 耿淑洁
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2010
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 胡春
关键词: 臭氧 ; 紫外 ; 联合消毒 ; 肠道病原微生物 ; 光复活
中文摘要:       氯消毒不能有效灭活水中抗氯性强的病原微生物,并且有消毒副产物的产生,供水水质受到潜在的威胁,因此,对水厂现有消毒工艺的改进势在必行。在众多的替代消毒技术中,臭氧、紫外等消毒剂能高效灭活水中病原微生物,在饮用水处理中具有广阔的应用前景。本论文以原虫的指示微生物枯草芽孢杆菌芽孢及轮状病毒等典型病原微生物的高效去除为目标,针对不同水质特征,研究了臭氧-自由氯和紫外-自由氯联用工艺的消毒效果、协同作用机制及影响因素。主要研究结果如下: (1)以枯草芽孢杆菌芽孢为原虫的指标微生物,研究了臭氧-自由氯联合工艺的消毒效能。研究表明,预臭氧破坏了芽孢外壁和芽孢壳,减小芽孢的抗氯性,有利于氯渗透进入芽孢内部,提高了氯消毒的效果。随着臭氧预处理时间的延长,氯对芽孢的灭活率提高,而且氯的消耗降低。 (2)对不同肠道病原微生物的紫外消毒研究表明,大肠杆菌、痢疾志贺氏菌、Wa株轮状病毒的紫外失活动力学符合一级动力学。鼠伤寒沙门氏菌的紫外失活动力学由滞后区、一级动力学区、拖尾区组成。这些微生物在实际饮用水水样和磷酸盐缓冲溶液(PBS)中的紫外失活动力学相似,在PBS中的实验结果在实际饮用水水样中仍适用。 (3)在日光灯照射下,研究了经紫外损伤的痢疾志贺氏菌、鼠伤寒沙门氏菌、大肠杆菌的光复活及其影响因素。结果表明细菌的光复活率与紫外辐照剂量和细菌对紫外的抗性有关;细菌对紫外的抗性越大,抑制其光复活所需的紫外剂量越大。水中的富里酸有利于细菌的光复活;经紫外照射的富里酸溶液中,细菌的光复活率更高。 (4)针对紫外消毒后细菌发生光复活的问题,研究了紫外-自由氯联合消毒工艺。结果表明,与单独氯消毒相比,紫外-自由氯联合消毒工艺降低了氯的投加量;低浓度的氯可以抑制病原微生物的光复活,减少消毒副产物的生成。
英文摘要:
      Free chlorine as a primary disinfectant encountered difficulties in inactivating highly chlorine-resistant pathogenic microorganisms without excessive disinfection byproducts (DBPs), so alternatives to chlorine disinfection of drinking water need to be investigated. Ozone and ultraviolet have the potential for application in the disinfection of drinking water, due to high bactericidal capability. In this work, inactivation of typical pathogenic microorganisms such as rotavirus and Bacillus subtilis spores by sequential ozone/cholrine and UV/chlorine disinfection was evaluated in raw water. Moreover, the disinfection efficiency, synergy mechanism and impact factors of disinfection effect during sequential disinfection were also investigated. The main research results are shown as follows: (1) As indicator microorganisms, the inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores with sequential disinfection with ozone followed by free chlorine was investigated. Ozone pretreatment disrupts surface layer and outer spore coat, reduces chlorine-resistant of spores, resulting in enhancing disinfection efficiency of chlorine for Bacillus subtilis spores. Inactivation rate of spores with chlorine increase and consumption of chlorine decrease according to the level of preozonation. (2) Inactivation of enteropathogenic microorganisms by UV exposure was investigated in collimated beam tests. The inactivation kinetics of Escherichia coli, Shigella dysentery, Wa strain rotavirus by UV can be described with first-order kinetics. Salmonella typhimurium was characterized by a lag phase, followed by a pseudo-first-order and tailing of inactivation. Due to the similaration of inactivation kinetics by UV in drinking water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), the experiment results obtained in PBS can be applied to drinking water. (3) The photoreactivation of Shigella dysentery, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli under irradiation of fluorescent lamps after UV disinfection was investigated. Results show that photoreactivation rate of bacteria is influenced by the UV radiation dose as well as their UV–resistance. With the increasing of UV resistance of bacteria, it requires higer UV dose to inhibit photoreactivation completely. Fulvic acid in water is conductive to bacterial photoreactivation. Photoreactivation rate increases with increasing doses of UV radiation for fulvic acid. (4) Due to the problem of photoreactivation of bacteria, Squential inactivation of bacteria with UV/chlorine was studied. Compared with chlorine disinfection individual, consumption of chlorine residuals decreases in sequential UV/chlorine disinfection. Lower concentration of chlorine can restrain bacterial photoreactivation, leading to inhibit the production of DBPs.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35061
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
耿淑洁. 饮用水自由氯与臭氧或紫外联合消毒技术研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2010.
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