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题名: 北运河流域河流水环境质量演变及其影响因素研究
作者: 菅宇翔
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2011
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 单保庆
关键词: 北运河 ; North Canal ; 沉积物 ; sediment ; 水质评价 ; water quality evaluation ; 驱动因素 ; drivering forces
其他题名: Study on Water Environment Quality Change and Driving Forces in North Canal, Beijing
中文摘要:       河流水环境是人类社会的重要组成部分,它既是人们赖以生产、生活的重要资源,也具有承担各种社会活动废物排放的特殊功能。随着城市化进程的推进和经济社会的不断发展,多数流域的水环境质量日趋恶化。为实现社会经济的科学发展,建设资源节约和环境友好型社会,水环境治理任重道远。而科学的治理和修复工作必须建立在对水环境质量变化过程和驱动机制充分了解的基础之上。为此,本文选择北运河流域为研究对象,从多年统计资料和水质监测数据入手,结合沉积物柱样中保存的环境信息,采用多种方法对北运河流域水环境进行质量评价,研究其时空变化特点,并探索其影响因素与驱动机制。   研究的主要结论如下:   1、北运河流域水质污染特征   北运河水质污染属于有机污染和氨氮污染,污染状况严重,绝大多数断面水质难以满足北京市地表水功能区划的要求;同时,水体中的总氮、总磷浓度较高,有发生富营养化的风险。从污染源结构来看,主要污染源首先是农业面源;其次为生活源,工业源贡献较少;从污染源的空间特征来看,工业污染源排放集中在大兴区和凉水河;生活污染物集中在昌平区和南沙河;农业面源污染排放量最大的是通州区和凤河。   2、北运河流域沉积物质量风险评价   从营养元素来看,城市用水段污染较重,表层基本处于有机污染的状态,且从垂直分布来看污染在持续加重,作为内源有富营养化的风险;农业用水段的污染状况趋于改善,有机污染程度较低。从重金属污染来看,城市用水段的重金属含量较下游农业用水型河段的含量高,北运河及其支流沉积物中铬及镍的生物毒害作用存在频繁发生的可能,并且主要发生在农村型河段及支流。   3、北运河流域水环境质量的时空变化   河流水质方面,从时间上看整体没有太大的提高,但局部支流有所改善,干流北运河水质则持续恶化;从空间上看水质污染重点由原先的支流逐渐转移到干流,且水系上段也出现了水质恶化;水系水质污染重点正由城市中心区向外部扩展区转移。沉积物方面,城市用水段的重金属含量较下游农业用水型河段的含量高,铜、钱和锌分布呈现由沉积物底层向表层逐渐增加的趋势,而镉、铬和镍含量较为稳定;排污支流凤港减河对农业用水型河段污染贡献很大,需予以重视。   4、北运河流域水环境质量的影响因素   从时间尺度分析北运河水质与流域人口、经济发展、产业结构、土地利用结构、环境投资及污水设施建设等因素的关系,结果表明河流水质与流域人口、经济总量、第三产业比重、土地综合利用指数、环保投资额度、污水处理率均有明显的线性相关关系,其中第三产业比重的变化会对北运河水质产生更大的影响。
英文摘要:       As an important part of human society, river water environment provid giant ecological functions and ecological shelters for the urban However, with the social and economic development, especially the rapid development of urbanization, the river water environment has undergone significant changes. Investigate the impact of changes in river water environment factors and the corresponding drive mechanism for achieving social and economic urban development and ecological environment, promote regional sustainable development of great significance. Taking North Canal basin as an example, through years of statistics data and water quality monitoring data, combined with environmental information stored in sediment core, analysis the North Canal basin's social and economic development and river water quality change situation, combined with correlation analysis, regression analysis were used to explore the North Canal water quality and the evolution of the main driving forces. The main conclusions of the present study were as follows: 1. We found water body basically in organic pollution, including the largest contribution of NH3-N are agricultural non-point sources; the pollution concentrated in the Changping District, Tongzhou District, Daxing District and Wenyuhe river, Liangshuihe river, Fenghe river sub-basin. 2. About river water quality, with the passage of time the whole water quality not much improved, but some improvement were made in local tributaries, main channel water quality continued to deteriorate; terms of water pollution of spatial distribution from the original focus gradually shifted to the river tributaries, and water quality deterioration also appeared in the upper reaches of the river; river water pollution key areas transfer from the central area of the urban to the external expansion area. 3. About river sediments, the urban water demand area with serious pollution, state of the basic organic pollution in the surface and the view from the vertical distribution of pollution continues to increase, as the source of a risk of eutrophication; the agriculture water demand area pollution tends to improve, and low level of organic pollution. The heavy metal content of urban reaches are high than the downstream reaches of agricultural, Cr and Ni in the sediment of North Canal and its tributaries have the the possible of biological toxicity existence, and frequently and occurred mainly in the agricultural river and tributaries; the contribution of pollution input of branches of the North Canal could not be ignored.. 4. river water quality and watershed population, GDP, the proportion of tertiary industry, land utilization index, investment in environmental protection, urban sewage treatment rate has a significant linear correlation and the proportion of tertiary industry changed in water quality of North Canal greatest positive impact.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35077
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
菅宇翔. 北运河流域河流水环境质量演变及其影响因素研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2011.
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