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题名: 天津地区二恶英类污染物的分布研究
作者: 丁磊
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2011
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 江桂斌
关键词: 二恶英 ; PCDD/Fs ; 多氯联苯 ; PCBs ; 天津 ; Tianjin ; 大气被动采样 ; PUF passive air sampling ; 大流量主动采样 ; High-volume air sampling
其他题名: Distribution researdh of dioxin-like contaminants in Tianjin
中文摘要:       天津市位于中国北部地区,西临渤海湾,工业发达、门类齐全,是中国近代工业的发祥地,也是中国重要的老工业基地和当前重要的工业城市。天津市工业包含石油石化,电子,金属加工与制造等,潜在二恶英类污染物污染源较多,因此,我们针对该地区环境样品进行采集和分析,获取该类污染物在城市和郊区的浓度水平和分布特征,进而揭示污染物可能的来源和归趋。 二恶英类污染物包括二恶英(PCDD/Fs)、二恶英类多氯联苯(Dioxin like -PCBs),是环境中典型的持久性有机污染物(POPs)。该类污染物或因人类生产生活活动而产生、或曾为工业产品或副产物而出现,具有毒性高,致癌致畸致突变效应,且结构稳定,在环境中难以降解,易随食物链在生物体中富集等特点,其中二恶英已被世界卫生组织的国际癌症研究中心列为一级致癌物。 本论文针对天津代表性区域分季节进行了大气与土壤样品的采集,并使用同位素稀释-高分辨气相色谱/高分辨质谱(HRGC/HRMS)法对样品中的PCDD/Fs和PCBs进行了检测和分析,我们的研究主要开展及完成了以下研究工作: 通过对天津地区取暖季和非取暖季被动大气样品进行分析,ΣPCDD/Fs的浓度为108 – 8.19×103 fg m-3,毒性当量为4.08 – 325 fg I-TEQ m-3;ΣPCBs的浓度为3.08×104 – 3.01×105 pg m-3,毒性当量为1.72 – 49.6 fg I-TEQ m-3。与世界上其它城市地区的浓度水平相比偏高。天津大气中PCDD/Fs的污染模式符合典型“源”排放的特征,即呋喃类的浓度明显高于恶英类的浓度,而且大气中PCDD/Fs的总浓度冬季高于夏季,因此冬季取暖可能是该地区二恶英主要的来源。而PCBs则没有明显的季节性变化。此外,人体呼吸摄入风险评估表明,点源区居民受到的健康风险要超过生活区、工业区和背景区,应引起足够重视。 利用大流量空气采样器对天津地区冬、夏季大气样品进行了采集与分析,夏季和冬季PCDD/Fs的毒性当量分别为14.2 – 172 fg I-TEQ m-3和 89.8 – 1.01×103 fg I-TEQ m-3 ,分析发现,天津地区的PCDD/Fs污染呈废弃电器电子设备拆解地区——沿海工业区、城市生活区——背景区由高到低的梯度分布趋势。对比冬夏季大气及土壤样品中PCBs的分析结果,12种共平面PCBs和6种指示性PCBs(PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-101,PCB -138,PCB -152,PCB -180)均有检出,PCBs的总浓度没有明显的季节性变化。对比其它地区和国家,天津市二恶英类污染物污染状况与国内一些大城市的污染水平基本一致,但是略高于欧洲和北美地区一些城市的污染水平。
英文摘要:
      Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are two typical persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that are widely distributed in the environment. PCDD/Fs are principally as by-product of anthropogenic activities, in particular the manufacture and use of organochlorine chemicals and combustion processes, which, especially the 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted congeners, are among the most hazardous environmental pollutants. PCDD/Fs are chemically stable, persistent, hydrophobic organic chemicals and could be biomagnified through the food chain, causing potential risk to high trophic level wildlife and humans. TCDD has been classified as a class-A carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and is established as a promoter for certain tumors including liver and skin. In this thesis, the PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the air and soil samples collected seasonally from Tianjin typical area were analyzed by using isotope dilution-high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry method,. Our research work are presented as follows: Firstly,air samples collected during the heating and non-heating seasons were studied by using PUF passive air samplers. The air concentrations of PCDD/Fs were 108 – 8.19×103 fg m-3 and the I-TEQs were 4.08 – 325 fg I-TEQ m-3。ΣPCBs concentrations ranged from3.08×104 – 3.01×105 pg m-3 and the I-TEQ values were 1.72 – 49.6 fg I-TEQ m-3. The pollution levels were comparable or slightly higher than other urban cities around the world. Pollution pattern of PCDD/Fs was accordant with the typical “source” characteristics. The levels of PCDFs were higher than those of PCDDs obviously, and the PCDD/Fs in winter were higher than those in summer. This suggested that the primary local source of PCDD/Fs originated from combustion in winter, while there wasn’t obvousely seasonal change with the levels of PCBs. In addition, inhalation risk evaluation indicates that the risk to inhabitant’s health was greater for people lived in the source area than those in the living area, industrial area and background area, which should be paid more attention. Secondly, air samples in winter and summer were also collected by using high volume air samplers. The results showed that I-TEQ levels were 14.2 – 172 fg I-TEQ m-3 and 89.8 – 1.01×103 fg I-TEQ m-3 in summer and winter respectively. It was found that the PCDD/F level showed gradient distribution: E-waste dismantling region > coastal industrial zone > city living area > the background area. The toxic coplanar PCBs and the six indicator PCBs (PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-101, PCB -138, PCB -152, PCB -180) were detected, but there was no evidently seasonal change observed for total PCBs. Compared with other countries and regions, the pollution of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in Tianjin area was comparable to that in some cities in China, but a little higher than those reported in the north American and European countries.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35087
Appears in Collections:环境化学与生态毒理学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
丁磊. 天津地区二恶英类污染物的分布研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2011.
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