中国科学院生态环境研究中心机构知识库
Advanced  
RCEES OpenIR  > 环境水质学国家重点实验室  > 学位论文
题名: 我国重点城市饮用水和食用鱼中农药的污染特征及健康风险评价
作者: 于志勇
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2011
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 杨敏
关键词: 农药 ; Pesticide ; 水源水 ; Source Water ; 出厂水 ; Supply Water ; ; Fish ; 健康风险评价 ; Health Risk Assessment
其他题名: Pollution Characteristics and Health Risked Assessment of Pesticides in the Drinking Water and Fish of China’s Major Cities
中文摘要:       农药(pesticides)在水体及水产品中的普遍存在性和对人类健康的危害性已引起各国政府和科学家的重视,许多高毒的农药已经被禁止生产和使用,但由于其持久性和生物蓄积性,目前在各种水体及水产品中仍有残留。近30年来我国经济高速发展,农药的生产和使用量也在迅速增加。然而,目前为止我国饮用水水源、出厂水及水产品中农药的污染情况并不是很清楚。为此,本研究在建立有效的分析方法的基础上,分别针对中国重点城市的饮用水及其原水以及北京市场上的主要食用鱼进行了多种农药暴露水平的研究,并在此基础上开展了初步的针对农药的健康风险评价,取得了如下主要研究进展: (1)分别针对饮用水和水产品建立了25种农药的样品前处理方法,优化了利用GC/MS进行25种农药同时分析的方法,为饮用水和水产品的大规模农药残留调查奠定了基础;建立并优化了水源水中2种离子型化合物植物生长调节剂的WCX柱固相萃取富集及CAPCELL PAK CR 柱分离的HPLC/MS分析方法,解决了以往方法中存在的富集效率低以及质谱易受离子对试剂污染等问题。 (2)利用建立的分析方法,对我国33个重点城市109个水厂的水源和出厂水中的农药残留水平进行了调查。研究结果表明,在水源水中,除去六氯苯和七氯外,其余23种农药均有检出,检出率最高为乙草胺和仲丁威,分别为56.94%和50.7%,浓度最高的农药为莠去津(3636.3ng/L)、2,4-滴丁酯(3296.1ng/L)和乙草胺(1054.9ng/L);水厂处理工艺对农药的去除率并不高,出厂水中农药检出的平均浓度为0.01~140.05ng/L,除个别出厂水外基本都在国标限值以下;我国北方水源中的农药污染水平比南方水源高,而又以沿海水系中农药污染最为严重。 (3)对北京市场上4种鱼体中的农药残留水平进行了调查。鱼体中乙草胺、β-六六六、三氯杀螨醇、p,p'-滴滴伊、甲基对硫磷、p,p'-滴滴涕和百菌清的检出率较高,含量最高的为百菌清(1779.4μg/kg)、溴氰菊酯(620.3μg/kg)、p,p'-滴滴涕(143.3μg/kg)和α-六六六(114.6μg/kg)。不同鱼体对不同种类农药的生物累积效应不同。 (4)对水体及水产品中的农药进行了健康风险评价,发现饮用水中需要优先控制的农药为:莠去津、滴滴涕、对硫磷和毒死蜱;水产品中需要优先控制的农药为:溴氰菊酯、百菌清、滴滴涕、丁草胺、六六六和甲基对硫磷等。饮用水和水产品中农药的健康风险均低于10%,说明饮用水和水产品的健康风险总体上处于较低水平。
英文摘要:
      The occurrence of pesticides in the water and aquatic products and the harm of it to human health have gained attention to the governments and scientists. Many highly toxic pesticides have been banned the production and use by many countries and organizations, but because of its persistence and bioaccumulation, pesticides still present in all kinds of water body and aquatic products. The rapid economic development leaded to the capacity and dosage of pesticides increase by past 30 years in China. However, it is not very clear that the pesticide residue status in drinking water, source water and aquatic products. Based on reliable analytical methods, the pesticide residue status of the source and supply water in major big cities of China and fish in the Beijing market were studied. And health risk assessment of pesticides has been studied too. Through this study, the following outcomes were obtained. (1) Based on existing methods, we established pre-concentration method of water and aquatic products and optimized the analytical 25 kind of pesticides method using GC/MS for large-scale investigation of pesticide residue status in drinking water and aquatic products. We have established and optimized the HPLC/MS method for the identification and quantification of two plant growth regulators in source waters by using WCX cartridges for pre-concentration of the samples and using the CAPCELL PAK CR 1:4 column containing strong cationic exchange resins and C18 for separation. It solved the enrichment problem of ionic compounds in water and the pollution problem of ion-pair reagent. (2) Based on the established analytical method, the pesticides residues in 109 source and supply water in 33 cities of China were investigated. The results show that 23 pesticides were detected in the source water, except HCB and heptachlor. The highest detection rates were 56.94% and 50.7%, respectively, for acetochlor and fenobucarb. The highest residue concentrations were 3636.3 ng/L and 3296.1 ng/L, respectively, for atrazine and 2, 4 - butyl ester. The water plants treatment processes cann’t removel most pesticide in water. The average pesticides residue concentration in supply water was 0.01-140.05 ng/L, almost below the national standard limits. The pesticide residues in north water were significantly higher than in the south water and the pesticide residue in coastal was most seriously. (3) We have investigated the pesticides residues in four kinds of fish in Beijing market. The detection rates were high for acetochlor, β-HCH, dicofol, p,p'-DDE, methyl parathion and p,p'-DDT. The highest residue concentration of chlorothalonil was 1779.4 μg/kg, followed by deltamethrin (620.3μg/kg), p,p'-DDT (143.3μg/kg) and α-HCH (114.6μg/kg). Some pesticides showed significant bioconcentration in fish, for example chlorothalonil. (4) The health risk assessment about peistcides in water and aquatic products was studied in this paper. The results suggested that atrazine, DDT, parathion and chlorpyrifos were the prefered controlled pesticides in drinking water. The prefered controlled pesticides in aquatic products were deltamethrin, chlorothalonil, DDT, butachlor, HCH and methyl parathion. The health risks of pesticides in drinking water and aquatic products were lower than 10%. The results suggested that the HRs of pesticieds in water and aquatci products were controllable.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35088
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

Files in This Item:
File Name/ File Size Content Type Version Access License
我国重点城市饮用水和食用鱼中农药的污染特征及健康风险评价.pdf(1375KB)学位论文--限制开放 联系获取全文

Recommended Citation:
于志勇. 我国重点城市饮用水和食用鱼中农药的污染特征及健康风险评价[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2011.
Service
Recommend this item
Sava as my favorate item
Show this item's statistics
Export Endnote File
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[于志勇]'s Articles
CSDL cross search
Similar articles in CSDL Cross Search
[于志勇]‘s Articles
Related Copyright Policies
Null
Social Bookmarking
Add to CiteULike Add to Connotea Add to Del.icio.us Add to Digg Add to Reddit
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 
评注功能仅针对注册用户开放,请您登录
您对该条目有什么异议,请填写以下表单,管理员会尽快联系您。
内 容:
Email:  *
单位:
验证码:   刷新
您在IR的使用过程中有什么好的想法或者建议可以反馈给我们。
标 题:
 *
内 容:
Email:  *
验证码:   刷新

Items in IR are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.

 

 

Valid XHTML 1.0!
Copyright © 2007-2018  中国科学院生态环境研究中心 - Feedback
Powered by CSpace