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题名: 再生水紫外及紫外/氯联合消毒效果的研究
作者: 王秀娟
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2011
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 胡春
关键词: 紫外 ; UV ; ; Cl2 ; 联合消毒 ; sequential disinfection ; THMs ; THMs ; 遗传毒性 ; genotoxicity ; 光复活 ; photoreactivation ; 再生水 ; reclaimed water
其他题名: Studies on UV and sequential disinfection of UV and Cl2 in reclaimed water
中文摘要:       再生水作为一种潜在的水资源,可以应用于农业、工业和城市杂用等,能有效的缓解水资源短缺的问题。因此,有关再生水的应用和研究受到世界各国的广泛关注。为避免再生水暴露导致的风险,充分有效的消毒十分重要。 本论文选择了5种水中常见的肠道病原微生物:大肠杆菌(E. coli DH5a、E. coli ATCC 15597)、痢疾志贺氏菌(Shigella dysenteriae CGMCC 1.2428)、鼠伤寒沙门氏菌(Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028)、枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633),以及再生水中菌落总数(TBC)、异氧菌(HPC)和总大肠菌(TC)为去除目标,系统研究了紫外消毒的影响因素及紫外/氯联合消毒效果、协同作用机制、消毒副产物生成控制。主要研究结果如下: (1)研究了5种病原菌的紫外灭活动力学和光复活动力学,以及水质变化对紫外消毒动力学的影响,发现不同病原菌显示了不同紫外敏感性;水中铁离子、腐殖酸和外加颗粒物对UV灭活效率无显著影响;但腐殖酸增强了细菌的光复活能力,而铁离子则降低细菌光复活量。 (2)研究了天津两再生水厂微滤出水(W1)和膜生物反应器(MBR)出水(W2)中菌落总数(TBC)、异养菌(HPC)和总大肠菌(TC)的紫外灭活和光复活,结果表明紫外对微滤和MBR出水均能有很好的消毒效果。过滤后的再生水对细菌的紫外灭活无影响,但能够抑制细菌光复活的发生;比较了外源颗粒物和再生水中颗粒物对紫外消毒效果的影响,发现两者对紫外灭活病源微生物的影响方式不同,外源颗粒物不能用于表征再生水颗粒物对紫外消毒的影响。 (3)研究了再生水中的氯化过程,发现再生水中氯消耗满足的模型为Ct=A1*e-k1*t+A2*e-k2*t,但是由于氯与再生水反应的复杂性,氯消耗和氯对细菌的灭活与水质参数之间的联系根据常规测定的水质参数无法预测其规律。随氯浓度的增加,TTHMs的生成量增大,W2中TTHMs的生成大于W1;然而W1氯化后遗传毒性增加呈阳性,而W2无明显变化。 (4)研究了再生水紫外/氯联合消毒过程,发现紫外/氯联合消毒对细菌的光复活抑制表现明显的协同作用;紫外预处理可以有效降低氯的投加量,从而控制了再生水在消毒过程中三卤甲烷的生成和遗传毒性的增加。
英文摘要:
      Reclaimed water as an alternative water source for domestic, industrial, and agricultural purposes is efficient to alleviate the shortage of water resources, so the research and application of reclaimed water is popular in many areas of the world. The process of disinfection is necessary to minimize the public risks associated with exposure to reclaimed water. The target bacteria used in this research were E. coli DH5a, E. coli ATCC 15597, Shigella dysenteriae CGMCC 1.2428, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, and three indigenous bacteria total bacteria count (TBC), heterotrophic bacteria (HPC) and total coliform (TC). The principal objectives of this research were to study effects of water quality on UV inactivation,and disinfection efficiency, Synergistic mechanism, and controlling the formation of THMs and the change of genotoxicity during the sequential use of UV and Cl2 in reclaimed water. (1) Different inactivation curves and UV sensitivity were observed for all of the five selected bacteria under UV irradiation. In these experiments, the effect of Fe, humic acid, kaolin, and activated sludge seeded in PBS on kinetcs of UV inactivation was insignificant. Humic acid enforced the ability of photoreactivation while Fe decreased the extent of photoreactivation. (2) In the process of UV inactivation of TBC, HPC and TC in two reclaimed waters collected from two different wastewater reclamation plants using a membrane bioreactor (W1) and a microfilter (W2) as the main treatment processes, respectively, it was found that UV could inactive bacteria in the two reclaimed waters efficiently. Dissolved matter in two reclaimed waters had no influence on the kinetics of UV inactivation but reduced the ability of photoreactivation. Seeded and indigenous particles influenced UV inactivation by two different methods, so seeded particles could not be used to evaluate effect of indigenous particles on UV inactivation in reclaimed water. (3) The decay of chlorine, inactivation efficiency, the formation of disinfection by-product, and the changes of genotoxicity in chlorination were studied in water samples from two different wastewater reclamation plants. The decay of chlorine could be described by the model of Ct=A1*e-k1*t+A2* e-k2*t. Due to the complexity of the reaction of chlorine and matters in reclaimed water, the relationship of water quality with chlorine decay or inactivation efficiency was difficult to conclude. After chlorination, TTHMs in W2 was higher than that in W1, while IR of W1 increased to much more than 2, indicating its positive genotoxicity. (4) During sequential disinfection of UV and Cl2, a great synergism was observed afer consideration of photoreactivation. Pre-UV irradiation decreased the dose of chlorine used, and so the formation of TTHMs and the increase of genotoxicity in reclaimed water were reduced.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35091
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
王秀娟. 再生水紫外及紫外/氯联合消毒效果的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2011.
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