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题名: 沉积物中风险有机污染物筛查方法研究与应用
作者: 卜庆伟
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2012
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 王子健
关键词: 高通量分析方法 ; identification and ranking ; 半定量 ; high throughout screening ; 筛查 ; semi-quantification ; 风险排序 ; non-target analysis ; 风险评价 ; ecological risk assessment
其他题名: Development and Application of a High throughout Screening Approach for Ranking the Risky Organic Pollutants in Sediment
中文摘要:     由于化学品的大量生产使用并进入环境,给生态系统及人体健康带来了巨大的威胁。对环境中存在的大量化学品进行全面评价既不可能也不合理,因此不同的学者研究建立了多种筛查方法用于环境优先管理目标的确认。常用的筛查方法一般包括两类,一是从化学品数据库出发的基于化学品危害评估的方法,另一种是从环境暴露浓度出发的基于污染物风险分析方法。本研究旨在建立一种基于风险分析的重点关注风险污染物筛查方法。 在建立基于风险分析的重点关注风险污染物筛查方法过程中,面临的一个难点问题就是如何大量准确的获取环境暴露浓度。传统的研究方法是按照污染物类别进行分析测定,多数研究只能同时分析不多于100种污染物,对于大量的环境污染物筛查存在着方法复杂、耗时费力等问题,不适合大量污染物的环境筛查。本研究在保留时间锁定与质谱解卷积技术的基础上,优化建立了一种能够同时识别和半定量分析环境中1283种具有不同性质(0.28
英文摘要:      
Risks brought by use and release of chemical substances to human health and the environment have caught more and more attention of government and research groups. It is impossible and unreasonable to conduct full assessment for all of the chemicals. For this reason, a number of screening prioritization exercises has been conducted in the last years to find the priority pollutants for management. One category of these screening procedure was developed to classify a inventory of a vast number of chemicals, which was hazard-based, and the other category of screening procedure categorized chemicals using a risk-based method, which considering the environmental concentration. It is a new trend to develop risk-based system in this field. The objective of this dissertation was to develop a risk-based screening approach for identifying and ranking the priority contaminants for risk-control. The first challenge of developing a risk-based screening procedure was the way to obtain the environmental concentration for a unidentified number of contaminants. High cost, tedious and time-consuming works prohibited the use of traditional quantitative analytical schemes for a large number of existing contaminants, due to the fact that most of them were designed for a specific class of contaminants with similar properties. In light of these considerations, a high throughout screening approach for identification and ranking of potential risky contaminants was proposed to overcome the drawbacks of traditional analytical methods designed for a specific class of contaminants. To this end, sample preparation was optimized to provide a high throughout extraction and cleanup for a broad range of contaminants. Based on the hypothesis that contaminants with similar function groups behaved similar chromatographic characteristics and responded in a comparable intensity on mass selective detector, semi-quantification of 928 organic contaminants was conducted by 15 analogous calibration standards. Under optimal conditions, the developed approach can be used to estimate concentrations of at least 1283 contaminants simultaneously with uncertainty lower than one order of magnitude and recoveries ranging from 38.6 to 128.6% on average. The high throughout screening approach was successfully applied to analyze the potential risk contaminants in sediments of Qingcaosha reservoir. The high throughout screening approach offered a database containing the quantification information of the identified contaminants for a site-specific area. Combined with existing toxicity data, a risk-based screening approach was established. The probability ecological risk assessment was integrated in the screening-level assessment to rank the potential risky organic contaminants to overcome the drawbacks of point estimate method used in risk assessment. The risk-based approach was validated to screening the priority contaminants for risk control in Haihe River. The results of different water systems were compared. The developed risk-based screening approach was applied to screen the priority contaminants in multi-medium, such as water, suspended particle and sediment in Liaohe River. Results showed that terbucarb was selected as the priority contaminants for risk control in the three medium. Moreover, 11 contaminants, including acetophenone, isophorone, o-phenylphenol, were listed as the priority pollutants in suspended particles. Meanwhile, 11 contaminants were selected as priorities in sediments. The comparison between results of our ranking to those from a more traditional score-based approach showed that a risk-based prioritization approach that incorporate concept of risks and estimate exposure using measured environmental concentrations is more reasonable for ranking contaminants posing risks to the environment. Results from this study indicated that the risk-based prioritization approach was feasible in site-specific screening analysis to identify and rank the unregulated contaminants. It would be useful in finding targets for environmental management. The developed risk-based approach in this study was feasible in screening risk assessements for different environmental multi-medium matrice.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35098
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
卜庆伟. 沉积物中风险有机污染物筛查方法研究与应用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2012.
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