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题名: 典型PBDEs复合污染对大型溞的生态效应及其在区域风险模型中的应用
作者: 熊勤犁
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2012
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 史雅娟
关键词: PBDEs复合污染 ; Combined pollution of PBDEs ; 相似风险模型(RRM) ; Relative Risk Model ; 大型溞-跳虫模型(DSM) ; Daphnids-Springtail Model, Yangtze River basins of Chongqing ; 长江重庆段流域
其他题名: Combined ecological effects of Typical PBDEs on Daphnia magna and its establishment and application on the regional risk model
中文摘要:     在大多数受污染的环境中都存在着多种污染物共存的现象。研究这些污染物之间的相互作用及其对所在生态系统的共同效应,即复合污染问题,是目前环境科学和生态学的一大挑战。区域生态系统的复杂性,使得研究区域生态系统的复合污染相当困难,同时也使得区域生态风险评价难以开展。 本研究采用实验室模拟的方法,探讨了2,2’,4,4’-四溴二苯醚(BDE-47)与十溴二苯醚(BDE-209)单独和复合条件下暴露不同时间(48h、21d)对大型溞(D. Magna)不同层次生物标志物(繁殖率、死亡率、活动抑制率、心率、ChE、GST、CAT酶活性等)的生态效应。并且通过这些试验数据以及跳虫的相关试验数据构建区域生态风险评价模型(DSM),应用该模型对PBDEs对长江重庆段流域的生态风险进行评价。同时使用相对区域生态风险评价模型(RRM)对相同区域进行生态风险评价,通过该案例评价DSM、RRM的优缺点。 结果显示急性暴露(48h)后,BDE-47对大型溞48h活动抑制率的EC50为112.5μg/L;BDE-47对心率影响较弱。相比之下, BDE-209对大型溞48h活动抑制率无任何影响,但BDE-209大幅增加大型溞的心率。在复合效应急性毒性试验中,BDE-47和BDE-209对大型溞活动抑制率的影响表现出一定的拮抗效应。而且BDE-209浓度越高,拮抗作用越强。而对于急性暴露的另一个指标——心跳速率,BDE-209与BDE-47的复合效应为协同作用。 经过慢性暴露(21d)试验,单一BDE-47对大型溞存活率和生殖均有较大影响。BDE-47在一定程度上抑制了母溞ChE和GST的活性,但抑制率均不高。BDE-47大幅度诱导了CAT的活性,并呈现一定的剂量效应关系。BDE-209显著抑制了母溞ChE酶活性和GST酶活性。BDE-209大幅度诱导了CAT的活性,并在本研究低浓度情况呈现一定的剂量效应关系。BDE-47与BDE-209复合污染对大型溞的死亡率、繁殖率的影响均表现为拮抗作用;对母溞ChE酶活性表现为拮抗作用,且BDE-209 是影响母溞ChE酶活性的主要污染物;对母溞GST酶活性表现为协同效应;对母溞CAT酶活性表现为先诱导后抑制。 在以上试验数据的基础上,结合相关跳虫试验数据构建了大型溞-跳虫区域生态风险评价模型(Daphnids-Springtail model, DSM)。该模型有机地结合了毒性试验数据和宏观地学、土地利用类型等数据,使用多层次生物标志物进行区域生态风险评价。这使得评价结果更加接近实际情况。 应用DSM模型预测2012年PBDEs对长江上游重庆段流域生态风险。结果显示处于重庆主城区的流区域及处于主城区下游相对风险等级最高,绝对风险值较大的为主城区所在的区域。 本研究使用目前应用广泛的RRM模型对2006年,2010年同一区域长江上游重庆段流域生态风险进行评价。结果显示2010年该研究区域的相对风险值低于2006年。最大的风险源由2006年的农业用地变为2010年的城市和工业用地。在风险受体中,水体质量的风险始终较大。
英文摘要:    
The majority of contaminated areas are polluted with multiple pollutants. It is a major challenge for environmental and ecological scientists to investigate the interactions between and combined effect of such pollutants. The complexity of regional ecosystems makes research of combined contaminants very difficult, and also makes it difficult to perform regional ecological risk assessment. The microcosm tests were conducted to explore the separate and combined effects of 2,2 ', 4,4' - tetrabromo diphenyl ether (BDE-47) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) on Daphnia magna with several endpoints as immobilization, reproduction rate, mortality rate, heart rate, of ChE and GST, CAT enzyme activity, etc. after 48h and 21d exposure. A Daphnids-Springtail Ecological Risk Model (DSM) was developed to assess the regional ecological risk, based on the result of microcosm daphnids tests and the literature data of springtail. This model was applied to evaluate the ecological risks of PBDEs on the Yangtze River Basins of Chongqing, with comparison of the application of Relative Risk Assessment Model (RRM) in the same area, in order to certify its advantages and restrictions. The results showed that, after acute exposure (48h), the EC50 value ofBDE-47 on the immobilization of D. magna was 112.5μg/L. The heart rate of D. magna was not affected significantly by BDE-47. In contrast, the heart rate of Daphnids was significantly increased by BDE-209, while no effect on immobilization of D. magna was shown. The antagonistic effects on immobilization of D. magna and the synergistic effects on the heart rate of Daphnids were shown with the combination exposure of BDE-47 and BDE-209 in 48h. The antagonism was with the increase of BDE-209 concentration. In chronic exposure tests (21d), the survival and reproduction on D. magna were significantly affected by BCD-47. ChE, GST activities of maternal daphnids was inhibited by BDE-47, but the inhibition rate was not high. CAT activity of maternal daphnids was significantly induced by BDE-47, and showed a dose-response relationship. The ChE and GST activities of maternal daphnids were significantly inhibited by BDE-209. BDE-209 significantly induced CAT activity, and in low concentrations showing a dose-response relationship. The antagonistic effects on the mortalities, reproductions and ChE activities of maternal daphnids were shown with the combination exposure of BDE-47 and BDE-209 in 21d. While the synergistic effects on GST activities of maternal daphnids were showed with the combination exposure of BDE-47, BDE-209. CAT activities of D. magna were first induced, then inhibited by BDE-47, BDE-209. A Daphnids-Springtail Model about regional ecological risk assessment (Daphnids the-Springtail model, DSM) was developed based on the above test data and combining with the springtail test data. Toxicity data, macroscopic study, land use types and other data were integrated into this model, with the application of multi-level biomarkers, for regional ecological risk assessment. This model makes the evaluating results closer to the actual situation. The DSM model was applied to assesse the ecological risk of PBDEs on the Yangtze River Basins of Chongqing in 2012. The results indicated that the highest relative score of risk area was in the flow area of ​​Chongqing city and in the downstream of the main city. The absolute risk value was the highest in city's main region. Relative Risk Model (RRM) was used to evaluate the ecological risk of Yangtze River basins of Chongqing in 2006 and 2010. The results showed that the relative risk value of the study area in 2010 was lower than that in 2006. The highest risk source changed from agricultural land in 2006 to urban and industrial land in 2010. The water quality had always been the highest risk endpoint.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35102
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
熊勤犁. 典型PBDEs复合污染对大型溞的生态效应及其在区域风险模型中的应用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2012.
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