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题名: 典型有机污染物水生态基准与风险评估研究
作者: 金小伟
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2012
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 王子健
关键词: 有机污染物 ; organic pollutant ; 水质基准 ; water quality criteria ; 生态风险评价 ; ecological risk assessment ; 氯酚类化合物 ; chlorophenols ; 本土物种 ; Chinese resident aquatic organisms
其他题名: Aquatic life criteria and ecological risk assessment of typical toxic organics
中文摘要:     水质基准是制定水质标准的科学依据和理论基础,也为生态风险评价过程(效应评价)提供基础数据。反过来,生态风险评价的结果为最终水质标准的制定提供重要依据。从保护生物多样性的角度出发,制定水生态基准必须考虑不同生物分类和营养级别的各种水生生物;并且物种多样性存在地理分布差异,从而影响不同地区的物种敏感度分布。因此,区域水生态毒理学数据是制定水生态基准的科学基础。 本研究在综述国内外水生态基准方法学的基础上,提出以保护我国特有水生态系统完整性为目标的水生态基准方法;发展了制定我国水生态基准的技术路线、程序方法,包括:数据的筛选与评价,基准的计算方法以及最后的定值。进一步结合案例研究,以三种氯酚(2,4-二氯苯酚,2,4,6-三氯苯酚和五氯苯酚)为目标化合物,以太湖流域为研究对象,通过数据库整理以及实验室测定获得了三种氯酚对本土代表性水生物种的急性、慢性毒性数据。提出了基于区域水生态毒理数据的三种氯酚的水生态基准值,并对我国地表水中三种氯酚进行了多层次生态风险评估。此外针对生殖毒性类化合物的特殊性,对生殖毒性类化合物的生态风险评估进行了初步的探讨。主要研究成果包括以下几点: 比较三种氯酚类化合物对中国本土物种和非中国本土物种敏感性差异,结果显示2,4,6-三氯苯酚和五氯苯酚基于本土物种推导的预测无观察效应浓度(PNECs)小于非本土物种推导的结果,本土种敏感于非本土物种。2,4-二氯苯酚对本土物种和非本土物种的敏感性差异较小。应用不同的基准计算方法(评估因子法、美国EPA推荐公式法、物种敏感度分布曲线法(SSD))分别计算三种氯酚类化合物的水生态基准值。结果显示评估因子法推导的基准值比较保守,并不适合用于水生态基准的推导。SSD方法由于可以选择具体的保护百分数和置信度更适合推导水生态基准。推荐以SSD法推导的基于区域水生态毒理数据的水生态基准值为保护太湖水生生物的建议基准值, 2,4-二氯苯酚,2,4,6-三氯苯酚和五氯苯酚最终的短期暴露基准(SEC)分别为415、490和17.5 µg/L,长期暴露基准(LEC)分别为44、57和6.0 µg/L。 通过全国范围地表水中污染物检测结果以及本土物种的慢性毒性试验结果,对我国地表水中的三种氯酚类污染物(2,4-二氯苯酚,2,4,6-三氯苯酚和五氯苯酚)进行从简单商值法到复杂概率风险评估的多层次的生态风险评估。结果显示我国地表水中的五氯苯酚存在潜在的风险(风险水平为0.1),而2,4-二氯苯酚和2,4,6-三氯苯酚的风险可以忽略。概率风险评估能够通过定性和定量的比较暴露浓度和效应浓度之间的概率分布来表征风险,优于简单的点评估方式因而适合于高层次的生态风险评估。 针对水环境中越来越多的生殖毒性类化合物,以壬基酚为例,基于不同的测试终点(生存、生长、生殖、生化以及分子生物学指标)推导其PNECs值。其中以生殖毒性为测试终点的结果最为敏感,其PNECs值范围为0.18~0.92 µg/L,其结果比USEPA制定的壬基酚水生态基准值(主要基于生存和生长指标)低一个数量级。我国地表水中壬基酚存在潜在的生态风险,对5%和1%水生生物造成生殖影响的概率分别为14.2%和76.5%。从不同的区域来看,长江流域的风险水平明显高于其他流域。因此,传统测试终点、传统评估因子法不适合生殖毒性类化合物水生态基准的推导及生态风险评估。
英文摘要:     Water quality criteria (WQC) are scientific proof for development of water quality standard, and also provide a basic toxicity threshold data for ecological risk assessment (ERA). In turn, the results of ERA provide important evidences for the final water quality standards. Considering the protection of biological diversity, aquatic life criteria (ACL) development must take into account a variety of aquatic organisms from different taxonomic and trophic Levels. It is commonly thought that different ecosystems contain different biological constituents, which might have differential sensitivities to stressors. Therefor, it is important to deriving ACL based on native species or site-specific species toxicity data. In present study, the basic framework of aquatic life criteria methodology in China was constructed based on the review of existing methodologies for deriving water quality criteria in worldwide, and then ACL and tiered ERA were undertook for three chlorophenols in Chinese surface water based on Chinese resident aquatic organisms. In addition, preliminary research was focused on ecological risk assessment of chemicals causing reproductive toxicity. The main results are summarized as follows: When compared the tolerance of native species and non-native species to three chlorophenols, the results show that predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) derived from the native species were numerically smaller than those derived from the non-native species for PCP and 2,4,6-TCP. But for 2,4-DCP, PNEC derived from the native species were similar to those established based on the non-native species. Comparing different methods of PNEC derivation AF methods was found to be over-conservative for these site-specific organisms. The final ACLs derived using species sensitivity distribution (SSD) method based on site-specifec ecotoxicity data was recommended for Chinese aquatic ecosystem protection. The short-term exposure criteria (SEC) of 2,4-DCP, 2,4,6-TCP and PCP are 415 µg/L, 490 µg/L and 18 µg/L; Long-term exposure criteria (LEC) are 44 µg/L, 57 µg/L and 6 µg/L, respectively. The ecological risks posed by three chlorophenols, 2,4-DCP, 2,4,6-TCP, and PCP in Chinese surface waters were assessed. This was achieved by applying a tiered ERA approach ranging from deterministic methods to probabilistic options to measured concentrations of CPs in surface water of seven major watersheds and three drainage regions in China and the chronic toxicity data for indigenous Chinese species. The results show that the risks of three chlorophenols are ranked PCP>2,4-DCP≈2,4,6-TCP. PCP posed little ecological risk while 2,4-DCP and 2,4,6-TCP posed negligible or de minimis risk in Chinese surface water. The probabilistic risk assessment approach, which can provide more information for risk managers and decision makers, was favored over the screening-level single-value estimate method. Specific to chemicals causing reproductive toxicity in water environment, for instance, to nonylphenol (NP), PNECs were derived based on different test endpoints. The results show that PNEC derived based on reproduction toxicity data was the most sensitive, which ranged from 0.18~0.92 µg/L. This result is lower than the criteria continuous concentration (CCC) derived from USEPA by order of magnitude. NP posed potential ecological risk in Chinese surface water. The probability that NP can cause reproductive effects for 5% and 1% of aquatic organisms were 14.2% and 76.5%. When compared with different areas, the risk level for the Yangtze River Basin is significantly higher than the other basins. Therefore, traditional test endpoint and assessment methods are not suitable for ecological risk assessment of these chemicals.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35104
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
金小伟. 典型有机污染物水生态基准与风险评估研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2012.
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