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题名: 辽河流域生态环境质量评价及管理研究
作者: 郑鹏
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2012
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 邓红兵
关键词: 辽河流域 ; Liao river basin ; 生态环境质量评价 ; eco-environmental quality assessment ; 投影寻踪 ; projection pursuit method ; 压力-状态-响应模型 ; Pressure-State-Response model
其他题名: Research on eco-environmental quality assessment and management of Liao river basin
中文摘要:       辽河流域在辽宁省流经沈阳、辽阳、鞍山、抚顺、本溪、营口、铁岭、盘锦8个主要省辖市,流域内存在着重化工行业集中、经济增长模式粗放、产业结构型污染严重的现象,流域生态环境遭到了严重破坏,流域污染指数一直高居全国七大流域前列。科学地评价辽河流域生态环境质量,可以明确流域生态环境变化的程度和方向,揭示影响流域生态环境的间接与直接因素,进而协调好流域内社会经济的发展与环境保护之间的关系,在保证经济稳定增长的同时,制定合理的环境保护目标,处理好短期与长期利益、区域发展与总体发展的关系,走可持续发展的道路。 近些年来,生态环境质量评价的研究从理论研究逐渐拓展到量化研究,有越来越多的方法被应用到评价中,但到目前为止,还没有形成一套公认指标体系和评价标准。本文根据辽宁省辽河流域自然、社会、经济统计资料,同时结合遥感、DEM、土壤等专题数据,辅以RS、GIS技术手段,从流域的基本特征、水资源、污染物排放、水环境以及区域社会经济等方面调查分析了辽宁省辽河流域“自然-经济-社会”复合生态系统的生态环境状况,掌握了水资源、水环境和产业结构这三方面存在的问题。在此基础上,以流域“人—地—水”的相互作用关系为核心,将流域内的主要城市作为评价单元,基于“压力-状态-响应”框架构建了层次清晰的流域生态环境质量评价指标体系,确定了相应的等级标准。最后采用投影寻踪的评价方法,在区域尺度上对研究区2000年和2008年这两个时期的生态环境状况进行综合评价,结果表明: (1)投影寻踪法中,最大投影指标值为Q(a)=0.8381,其对应的最佳投影方向a=[0.2185,0.1528,0.2536,0.1415,0.1164,0.1756,0.1817,0.2273,0.1684,0.1930,0.2411,0.2184,0.1868,0.2047,0.1872,0.2043,0.1659,0.1880,0.1953,0.2096,0.1854,0.2078,0.1516,0.1356,0.2012,0.1610,0.1213,0.1124,0.1180,0.1376],投影值Z与评价等级Y的对应公式为。 (2)根据对目标层的分析显示,经过近年来产业结构的调整和对环保投资力度的加大,辽河流域目前总体生态环境质量处于中等状态,并且局部地区已有好转的趋势。其中,沈阳、鞍山、抚顺、本溪的环境质量状态己经达到良好,但辽阳、铁岭等市还需要进一步加大力度改善和提高。2008年辽河流域生态环境质量各评价单元按照评价等级排序为:鞍山>抚顺>沈阳>本溪>铁岭>辽阳>营口>盘锦。 (3)根据对准则层的分析显示,辽河流域在2008年的压力程度总体上基本与2000年持平;整个流域在2008年水质与水量状态总体上要次于2000年,但是变化幅度很小;从影响环境质量的响应子系统评价结果看,人类为维护辽河流域生态环境质量所采取的响应措施总体上有较大幅度的好转。 最后,基于评价结果从立法体系、流域管理的政策体系、流域规划和公众参与等方面分别提出了针对辽宁省辽河流域管理对策。
英文摘要:       Liao river basin flows through eight cities in Liaoning province, including Shenyang, Liaoyang, Anshan, Fushun, Benxi, Yingkou, Tieling and Panjing. The basin is characterized by its centralized heavy chemical industries, extensive economic growth and serious centralized pollution. The basin ecological environment has been severely damaged, and its pollution index has been topped among that of the seven major basins in China. Critical evaluation of the basin’s eco-environmental quality is able to determine how, and to what extent, the basin eco-environment changes, as well as the direct and indirect factors affecting the system. Social economy and environmental protection can hence be balanced: while maintaining stable economic growth, rational environmental protection plans can be formulated, short- /long-term benefits and regional-overall development can be harmonized, and sustainable development is maintained. In recent years, eco-environment quality assessment has evolved from theoretical to case studies, applying considerable methods. To date, however, a set of universally acknowledged index system and evaluation criteria has not been formed. Therefore, in this paper, based on the statistics of natural, social, economical aspects of Liao river basin, data of remote sensing, DEM and soil properties, the basin’s natural-economical-social complex ecological condition is analyzed, in aspects of general properties, water resources, pollutant discharge, aquatic environment, and regional social economy. RS and GIS are applied to facilitate the evaluation. Accordingly, problems of water resources, aquatic environment and industrial structure are discovered. Furthermore, setting the major cities within the basin as evaluation units, and based on the human-land-water relationship and stress-condition-response mode, a quality evaluation index system of basin eco-environment is developed, and corresponding grade standard is put forward. Finally, projection pursuit is used to evaluate the eco-environment of studied areas in regional scale, in years of 2000 and 2008. Results are: (1) Accroding the projection pursuit method, the largest projection index value is 0.8381, the corresponding optimal projection direction is [0.2185, 0.1528, 0.2536, 0.1415, 0.1164, 0.1756, 0.1817, 0.2273, 0.1684, 0.1930, 0.2411, 0.2184, 0.1868, 0.2047, 0.1872, 0.2043, 0.1659, 0.1880, 0.1953, 0.2096, 0.1854, 0.2078, 0.1516, 0.1356, 0.2012, 0.1610, 0.1213, 0.1124, 0.1180, 0.1376], The corresponding formula for the projection value Z and the evaluation rating of Y is (2) Analysis of target layers indicate that with the industrial structure adjustment and increase in environmental protection invest in recent years, the basin’s overall eco-environment is in moderate condition, with some regions show trends of improvement. Among them, the environmental quality of Shenyang, Anshan, Fushun and Benxi are relatively good, while Liaoyang and Tieling still need substantial improvement. According to evaluation grade, the 2008 eco-environment quality are sorted as: Anshan, Fushun, Shenyang, Benxi, Tieling, Liaoyang, Yingkou and Panjing. (3) Analysis of target layer show that the 2008 overall stress degree of Liao river basin is equivalent of that of 2000. The basin’s water quality and quantity in 2008 is slightly worse than the 2000 level. The result of response system indicates that the overall response system has been considerably improved. In addition, environmental management strategies of Liao river basin are proposed from the perspectives of legislation, basin management and policy, basin planning and public participation.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35122
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
郑鹏. 辽河流域生态环境质量评价及管理研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2012.
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