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题名: 辽宁省重要饮用水源地——大伙房水库流域生态补偿标准与机制研究
作者: 杜鑫
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2012
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 吴钢
关键词: 水源地 ; water source area ; 生态补偿 ; ecological compensation ; 大伙房水库 ; 补偿机制 ; 可持续发展
其他题名: Research on Standard and Mechanism of Watershed Ecological Compensation of Dahuofang Reservoir, an Important Drinking Water Source in Liaoning Province
中文摘要:       近年来,随着流域水污染问题日益严重,流域上下游之间的利益冲突日趋明显,流域生态补偿成为协调流域上下游之间利益冲突的重要途径。目前,我国生态补偿的研究与实践还处于探索阶段,虽然我国一些地区已经开展了流域生态补偿的实践,并取得了一定成效,但在具体执行中还存在许多问题。论文针对流域生态补偿标准测算与补偿机制问题进行研究,探讨了流域生态补偿标准的理论基础,基于边际成本——效益、投入——产出等方法建立了相应的核算范围与核算方法,提出了成本效益分摊的原则与方法,构建了水源地生态补偿标准核算的框架与方法体系。 在此基础上,以大伙房水库为例开展了重要水源区流域生态补偿标准的实证研究。大伙房水库是我国九大饮用水源地之一,是沈阳、抚顺、辽阳、鞍山、营口、盘锦、大连七个城市近2300万人口的生活饮用水水源地。水库上游地区长期为水源涵养林建设及生态保护的大量投入,使区域内农民收入降低,经济发展受到限制,县域财政收入增长缓慢,进而影响了上游区域保护水资源环境的积极性,亟需开展流域生态补偿研究,通过建立长效的生态补偿机制,调动水源保护方的积极性,保障重要水源地的水质安全。 研究结果表明:大伙房水库上游水源区由于生态建设和环境保护,造成巨大的直接成本和社会经济发展制约,上游清原、新宾、抚顺三县无论是在第一产业、第二产业还是在财政收入上,排名都处在七城市16个县(市)的后面,建立适当的生态补偿机制对于保障区域水量水质安全和长期稳定运行具有必要性和紧迫性;涵养林效益经济补偿核算结果显示,受水区对水源区的最小补偿额应为28676万元/年;限制性生产效益补偿应为15869万元/年;治污设施建设补偿中设施费补偿应为10508万元,运营费应为557万元/年;生态补偿总额应为55610万元/年(含一次性设施费补偿费用);受益地区总生态补偿金额为:沈阳市为12496万元;大连市为6879万元;鞍山市为5136万元;抚顺市为3069万元;营口市为4597万元;辽阳市为5849万元;盘锦市为12944万元;最后从资金来源、分配方式、政策机制保障进行了水源区生态补偿实施设计,提出了相应的对策建议。
英文摘要:
      In recent years, with the river basin water pollution worsening, the conflict of interest between the upstream and downstream of the basin is increasingly clear. Ecological compensation of river basin has become an important way to coordinate the conflict of interest between upstream and downstream in the river basin. At present, China’s research and practice of ecological compensation is still in the exploratory stage, The practice of river basin ecological compensation has been carried out in some areas of China, and has made some achievements, but there are still many problems in the specific implementation. River basin ecological compensation standard calculation and compensation mechanism is aim to explore in this thesis. The theoretical basis of river basin ecological compensation was analyzed, and the calculation scope and methods were established based on the marginal cost - effective, input - output accounting methods and a water ecological compensation standard accounting framework and methodology was built. Dahuofang Reservoir was taken as an example to carry out river basin ecological compensation empirical research on important water source area. The Dahuofang reservoir is one of China’s nine major drinking water sources, and is the drinking water source for nearly 23 million people living in seven cities: Shenyang, Fushun, Liaoyang, Anshan, Yingkou, Panjin, and Dalian. Upstream of the reservoir area provides a large amount of long-term input for the construction of water conservation forest and ecological protection, that leads to the income reduction of the famers 我ho lives within the reservoir area, limited the economic development, and restricted the fiscal growth rate of the local government, affecting the enthusiasm of the Upstream in water resources protection. So it is crucial to carry out ecological compensation research, with the establishment of a long-term ecological compensation, to mobilize the enthusiasm from water source protection part, to ensure the safety of main water source. The results showed that: the Dahuofang Reservoir upstream area has been resulted in enormous direct costs and the development of socio-economic constraints due to ecological construction and environmental protection. Those 3 upstream counties, Qingyuan, Xinbin and Fushun, are all at the low end of the primary industry, secondary industry and financial income list among all 16 counties in 7 cities. The establishment of appropriate ecological compensation mechanism for the protection of regional water quantity and quality safety and long-term stable operation is necessary and urgent. Conservation forests effective economic compensation accounting results that the minimum amount of compensation should be 286.76 million yuan/year; restrictive production effective compensation should be 158.69 million yuan/year; the compensation of construction of pollution control facilities fee should be 105.08 million yuan, operating costs should be 557 million/year; total ecological compensation should be 556.1 million yuan/year (including a one-time facility fee compensation costs). Total ecological compensation of the such benefit cities: Shenyang, 124.96 million yuan; Dalian, 68.79 million yuan; Anshan, 51.36 million yuan; Fushun for 30.69 million yuan; Yingkou, 45.97 million yuan; Liaoyang for 58.49 million yuan; Panjin, 129.44 million yuan. Finally, water source implementation of ecological compensation mechanism was designed on the basis of funds, payment methods, coordination mode, supervision, management and policy protection, and the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions were proposed.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/35123
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
杜鑫. 辽宁省重要饮用水源地——大伙房水库流域生态补偿标准与机制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院. 2012.
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